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Part IV - blood continued
Terms in this set (20)
Is present almost exclusively in skeletal muscle, heart muscle & in brain tissue. It enters the circulation quickly after atrophy or necrosis of the cells. It is one of the most valuable test to indicate the occurrence of an MI. Called CK-MB, CK-BB, CK-MM
An end product of the normal metabolism of phosphocreatine utilized for muscle energy. It is a nitrogenous compound secreted in the urine. This level does not not vary w/ diet, so it is a very valuable indicator of kidney function
Increased in : Renal dz
Decreased in : Muscular dystrophy
Creatinine is increased in:
Creatinine is decreased in:
CRP (c-reactive protein)
Is not normally present in a patient's blood. It appears in the presence of inflammation & it is an earlier indicator of inflammation than ESR. It is best used to evaluate the course & severity of tissue necrosis
Present in: RA, malignancy & infections
ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
Refers to the amount of RBCs that fall to the bottom of a test tube in 1 hour. Inflammation & necrosis of the tissue causes RBCs to aggregate & become heavier. The heavier the cell, the faster it falls. The cells are made heavier by proteins produced by the body in inflammatory states.
Increased in: Multiple myeloma, Temporal arteritis & collagen diseases
RA, malignancy & infections
CRP (C-reactive protein) are present in:
multiple myeloma, temporal arteritis & collagen diseases
ESR is elevated in:
Blood sugar is formed from carbohydrates & stored in the liver as glycogen. Slight elevations are said to be of questionable significance. This test is done in the fasting state is diagnostic of DM if 2 consecutive fasting blood sugar tests are over 140%
Is usually 60% of blood glucose. Blood glucose is drawn 1 hour prior to a spinal tap. Changes in blood sugar are seen in the CSF 1-3 hours later.
Decreased in: Meningitis
Glucose CSF is decreased in:
GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase or gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase)
An enzyme found mainly in the liver, kidney, spleen & prostate. This enzyme is usually higher in males b/c of large amounts found in the prostate. This test is used to determine LIVER CELL dysfunction & ALCOHOL INDUCED liver dz. This test is more sensitive in detecting obstructive jaundice, cholangitis & cholecysitis than alkaline phosphatase or transaminase tests
glycosylated hemoglobin aka hemoglobin A1C
Test of RBCs that reveals the body's ability to utilize glucose over a period o 2-3 months. It is used only to evaluate the efficiency of INSULIN when controlling blood sugar level.
HLA B27 (PEAR)
Indicative of AS (90% of patients have it). Also found in Reiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis), acute anterior uveitis, Grave's dz, Juvenile RA, Psoriatic arthitis & Enteropathic arthritis
A lipoprotein thought to play a role in removing LDLs from arteries. The HDL level, if high, indicates a low risk of coronary heart dz while the HDL levels, if low, indicates a high risk. The levels in women are usually higher than the levels in men of comparable age. There is a correlation b/w low HDL levels, obesity, and dm. Physical exercise tends to increase the level of HDL.
This radioisotope (thyroid scan) procedure is used to determine the ability of the thyroid hold on iodine. The iodine that is radioactive is treated the same way that regular iodine is treated
Increased in : hyperthyroidism
Decreased in: hypothyroidism
A blood test used to measure levels of immunoglobulins & registers monoclonal spikes. Monoclonal increase indicates a neoplastic process. 99% of those w/ multiple myeloma have this spike. Bence Jones proteins in the urine further identifies that monoclonal spike. IfG is elevated most in multiple myeloma.
LDH (Lactic Dehydrogenase)
Enzyme found in tissues of kidney, hear, pancreas, skeletal muscle, spleen, brain & lungs. Associated w/ necrosis & active in Kreb's cycle of the liver & muscles. LDH level is 3x normal when one has an MI.
Enzyme involved in changing fats to fatty acids & glycerol. Pancreas is main source of this enzyme.
Increased in: acute pancreatitis
Used by the body for energy. They are precursors to STEROID HORMONES & Bile acids. Total lipids are cholesterol, trigs, phospholipids, which all circulate as lipoprotein.
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