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Training and Development
Heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance.
Activities designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs.
-Learning that goes beyond today's job and has a more long-term focus.
-Prepares employees to keep pace with organization as it changes and grows.
-Firm that recognizes the critical importance of continous performance-related T&D and takes appropriate action.
-Workers rewarded for learning and provided enriched jobs, promotions, and compensation.
-Organizations with reputation of being learning leader attract more and better qualified employees
Just-in-time training (on-demand training)
training provided anytime, anywhere in the world when it is needed.
T&D method for online instruction.
- available anytime, anywhere in the world, and in different languages
Virtual reality (also called 3D learning)
Extension of e-learning that permits trainees to view objects from a perspective that is otherwise impractical or impossible.
T&D method in which trainees are expected to study the information provided in the case and make decisions based on it.
- used in classroom with instructor who serves as facilitator.
T&D method that permits a person to learn by copying or replication behaviors of others to show managers how to handle various situations.
ex- conducting performance appraisal reviews
- correcting unacceptable performance
- delegating work
- improving safety habits
-handling discrimination complaints
- overcoming resistance to change
- orienting new employees
- mediating individuals or groups in conflict
T&D method in which praticipants are required to respond to specific problemsn they may encournter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations.
used to teach such skills as:
- grievance handling
- performance appraisal reviews
- conference leadership
- team problem solving
T&D method that permits participants to assume roles such as president, controller, or markting vice president of two or more similar hypothetical organizations and compete against each other by manipulation selected factors in a particular business situation.
T&D method in which the participant is asked to establish priorities for and then handle a number of business papers, e-mail messages, memoranda, reports, and telephone messages that would typically cross a manager's desk.
On-the-Job training (OJT)
An informal T&D method that permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them.
- Most commonly used T&D method
- No problem transferring what has been learned to the task
training method that combines classroom instruction with on-the-job training
- Traditionally used in craft jobs
- apprentice earns less than master craftsperson who is instructor
Online Higher Education
educational opportunities including degree and training programs that are delivered, either entirely or partially, via the internet
T&D delivery system that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles equipment actually used on the job
- removes employee from pressure of having to produce while learning
- Emphasis on learning skills required by job
T&D delivery system comprised of devices or programs that replicate actual jobs demands
ex- training of airline pilots in a simulator
consist of all learning experiences provided by an organizations resulting in upgrading skills and knowledge required in current and future managerial positions.
- imperative managers keep up with latest developments in their fields while managing ever-changing workforce in dynamic environment
- first-line supervisors, middle managers, and executives may all participate in management development programs
approach to advising, coaching and nurturing for creating practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal and professional growth and development.
- mentor may be located elsewhere in organization or in another firm
- relationship may be formal or informal
Often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss, who provides assistance, much like a mentor.
Initial T&D effort for new employees that informs them about the company, the job, and the work group.
Process of monitoring and measuring a firm's internal processes, such as operations, and then comparing the data with information from companies that excel in those areas.
- focus on metrics such as:
- training costs
- ration of training staff to employees
- whether new or more traditional delivery systems are used.
Orgainization Development (OD)
Planned and systematic attempts to change the organization, typically to a more behavioral environment.
- Designed to develop more open, productive, and compatible workplace despite differences in personalities, culture, or technologies
- Applies to entire system, such as a company or plant
Process of collecting hata from an organizational unit through the use of questionnaires, interviews, and objective data from other sources, such as records of productivity, turnover, and absenteesim.
- can create working environments that lead to better working relationships, greater productivity, and increased profitability.
Groups of employees, who voluntarily meet regularly with their supervisors to discuss problems, investigate casues, recommend solutions, and take corrective action when authorized to do so.
Conscious effort to develop effective work groups and cooperative skills throughout the organization.
-uses self-directed teams
- small group of employees responsible for entire work process
- members work together to improve their operation
Organization development technique that is designed to help individuals learn how others perceive their behavior.
- no agenda, leaders, autority, power positions
- people learn through dialogue
-participants encouraged to learn about themselves and others in group
-Also known as T-group training.
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