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Bio Test Ch.11
Terms in this set (67)
what is genes?
factors that determines traits
what is hybrid?
the offspring of true-breeding parents with different traits
what is traits?
specific characteristics that vary among individuals
what is alleles?
the different forms of a genes
what is gametes?
sex cells, eggs or sperm
why are peas a good model system for studying heredity?
they are easy to grow and they produce large number of offspring
how did Mendel cross-pollinate flowers?
removed the male parts from one flower and dusted their pollen (containing sperm) onto female parts of another flower
what is difference between the a genes and alleles?
gene is a factor that passes from parent to offspring and determines a trait. allele is one form of a gene
what is segregation?
the separation of alleles during formation of gamates
what is the result of segregation?
each gametes carries only one allele for each gene.
where is gene located?
genes direct your what?
how many chromosomes are in human body?
in most of cells, chromosomes are located in the?
what is genetics?
study of how living things inherit traits
body cells have ____ the number of chromosomes as sex cells
a trait may be determined by one what?
what gene may be hidden by dominant gene?
a person with dominant trait may be _____ for that trait
what is sex cells?
recessive genes for a characteristic sperm and eggs
what is pure?
having two of the same type of genes for a characteristic
what is chromosomes?
threadlike structures found in the nucleus
what is homozygous?
organisms that have two identical alleles for a genes
what is heterozygous?
organisms that have same alleles for a genes
what is Genes?
the units that determines the inheritance of biological characteristic
what is dominant?
alleles that is expressed
what is the parent
where genes come from
many genes exist in several different forms, and are therefore said to have what?
Mendel's principles alone cannot _____ traits that are controlled by multiple alleles or multiple genes
cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another are called?
For example, in certain varieties of chickens, the allele for black feathers is _________ with the allele for white feathers.
the variety of skin color in humans are ________ comes about partly because more than four different genes probably control this trait
scientific studies revealed that butterflies hatching in springtime had _________ of pigment in their wings than those hatching in the summer
in order to fly effectively, the body temperature of the __________________ needs to be 28-40 C
Western White Butterflies
______ pigmentation prevents the butterflies from overheating
the diploid cells of most adult organisms contain two complete set of?
inherited chromosomes and genes
what are located in specific positions on chromosomes?
these two sets of chromosomes are _________, meaning that each of the four chromosomes from the male parents has a corresponding chromosome from the female parents
the diploid number of chromosomes is sometimes represented by the?
such cells are _____, meaning 'one set'
the gametes of sexually reproducing organisms are?
what is a process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell?
by the end of meiosis II, the diploid cell becomes _____ haploid cells
as homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrads, they undergo a process called?
what is fertilization?
the fusion of male and female gametes
fertilization generates new combination of alleles in a what?
each gamete contains ___ allele for that gene.
meiosis reduces the chromosome number by what?
when does the tetrads happens?
during the prophase I
rabbits have 4 different versions of the gene for coat color, what pattern if inheritance is this?
when one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene it is called?
variation in human skin color is example of what?
what are linked genes?
pigmentation based on season
what example of linked genes did the text give it to you?
why did Thomas Morgan used fruit flies in his studies?
because a lots of offspring occurs in short period of time
what does crossing over provide?
genetic variation; new combination of alleles in the cell
a pea plant gamete would have how many alleles for height?
if an organism has 16 chromosomes in each of its egg cells, the organisms's diploid number is 32
for the trait of blood type in humans, there is an allele type A, an allele for Type B, and an allele for type O. Each person inherits one of these alleles from each parent, and their blood type is determined by what combination of these alleles they receive. Blood type is inherited as a polygenic trait
what is linked genes?
organisms that are on the same chromosome
how many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?
Which of the following assort independently?
a tetrad consists of?
a homologous pair of chromosome, each made of two chromatids
________ occurs during prophase I, and provides genetic variation in the daughter cells
situations in which one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene are called?
a bread of chicken shows codominance for feather color. one allele code for black feathers. another codes for white feathers. the feathers of heterozygous chickens of this bread will be what?
the arctic fox is blue-gray in the summer and white in the winter. what mostly likely influence this change?
genes and the environment
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