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Final Exam Review

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Difference between non-renewable resource and renewable resource?
A renewable resource is not being used up faster than it can be replaced. A nonrenewable resource is being depleted quicker than it can be replaced.
What are 5 fields of study that are included in environmental science?
Biology, Earth Science, Physics, Chemistry, Social Science
Similarities and differences for developed and developing population growth?
Developed country - stabilized or slowly growing, almost meeting replacement rate
Developing country - Rapid growth, high infant mortality
What are the steps of the experimental method?
Observing, hypothesizing, predicting, experimenting, analyzing data, drawing conclusions, repeating experiments, communicating results
What are the values included in the decision making process?
Aesthetic - what is beautiful
Economic - financial...spending, saving, and jobs
Environmental
Educational
Ethical / moral
Health
Recreational - enjoying the outdoors...boating
Scientific
Social / cultural
When tectonic plates collide what forms?
mountains
What organisms produce oxygen?
Any type of plants
Where is the majority of fresh water located?
Ice caps and glaciers
Difference between freshwater and ocean water?
Amount of salt or its salinity
What is the ultimate source of energy for ecosystems?
Sun
Example of coevolution
hawk moth and orchid
Explain pesticide resistance
Humans used pesticides to try to control pest populations. Non resistant pests died and only resistant pests remained. The resistant pests mated and produced resistant offspring.
Example of biotic factors
Plants, animals, bacteria (or anything once living)
Example of abiotic factors
Rocks, water, air - nonliving parts of the ecosystem
Which kingdoms contain producers?
Plants and protists
How do humans impact the balance of the carbon cycle?
Burning fossil fuels in great quantities has increased the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This has caused an increase in greenhouse gases holding more heat in the atmosphere and is leading to increased global temperatures.
Differences between primary and secondary succession?
Primary succession occurs where plant life has never existed.
Secondary succession occurs where plant life once existed, but suffered a tragic event.
Example of primary succession
mosses and lichens begin to grow on the side of a mountain.
Example of secondary succession
a forest was destroyed by a fire.
Difference between food web and food chain
Food chain - small, individual species interaction showing the movement of energy through an ecosystem.

Food web - large, multiple interactions, multiple food chains, many feeding relationships
What are some threats to ocean ecosystems?
Nutrient runoff, industrial waste, overfishing, marine life entangled in nets, sewage, algal blooms
What do scrubbers do?
Removes poisonous gases from industrial emissions before they are discharged into the atmosphere.
What causes acid precipitation?
Burning of fossil fuels, pollution in the atmosphere
Explain the greenhouse effect.
The sun's rays warm the Earth and the greenhouse gases trap heat that is radiated up from the Earth.
What could be the results of global warming?
Rising sea levels, coastal flooding, increases in droughts, increases in major storms
Difference between nekton and benthos
Nekton swim freely and benthos moves with the current and is usually attached to a hard surface.
Examples of freshwater ecosystems
(wetlands) marshes and swamps
(bodies of water) rivers, lakes, ponds
Example of a population
all maple trees in forest or all rabbits in a praire
Explain the concept of replacement level fertility.
Each pair of adults has two children - one child to replace each adult
The Modern age
point in human history was population growth the most rapid
Asia
the continent that is currently having the largest population growth
What are some strategies to slow population growth?
Public advertising, economic incentives, legal punishments, improving the education and status of women
Explain the Endangered Species Act and the laws it has to protect endangered species.
1. Cannot capture a wild animal listed as endangered for exhibition in a zoo or as a pet.
2. Cannot dig up an endangered plant to keep or sell.
3. Cannot destroyed the habitat of an endangered species.
Why is chlorine added to treat water?
To kill bacteria and other microorganisms and to aid in preventing further bacterial growth.
Why is it difficult to clean groundwater?
1. Ground water is deep in the ground and dispersed through large areas of rock

2. Recycling process of groundwater can take hundreds or thousands of years.

3. Pollutants cling to materials that make up the aquifer and further contaminate clean water.
Describe the tropical rain forest
Species of animals with specialized ways to avoid competition
Near the equator
Warm, wet climate
High biodiversity
Describe the temperate deciduous forest.
Trees grow green leaves in spring, but loose their leaves in late summer or fall
warm summers and cool winters
Describe the tundra.
Cold climate but has life
Permafrost - a layer of soil that is permanently frozen beneath the topsoil
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