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chapter 15 psychology

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psychotherapy
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
psychoanalysis
Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patients' free associations, resistances, dreams, and transference - and the therapist's interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
resistance
is psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
interpretation
in psychoanalysis, the analysts' noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
transference
in psychoanalysis, the patient's the patients' transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
psychodynamic therapy
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individual's are responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
insight therapies
a variety a therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
client-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client's growth. ("person- centered therapy")
active listening
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. a feature of Carl Roger's client-centered therapy
unconditional positive regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Roger's believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance
behavior therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
counterconditioning
a behavior therapy procedure that used classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
aversive conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking)
token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene btw events and our emotional rxns.
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.
cognitive behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average
meta-analysis
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
biomedical therapy
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
psychopharmocology
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
antipyschotic drugs
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs.a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic durgs that target certain dopamine receptors
antianxiety drugs
drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
antidepressant drugs
drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
psychosurgery
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
lobotomy
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to clam uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.