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Arts and Humanities
Cambridge DELTA Module 1 Terms
Terms/concepts for the Cambridge DELTA Module 1 Exam. ELT terms from An A-Z of ELT by Scott Thornbury.
Terms in this set (323)
SLA The process by which a person integrates into a particular culture. One of the first theories of SLA that attempted to prioritize social factors over purely cognitive ones. It has been partly rehabilitated under the name socialization.
SLA The extent to which a learner's use of a second language conforms to the rules of the language.
TESTING Designed to test what learners have learned over a week, month, term or entire course.
METHODOLOGY A form of teacher-driven research, the twin goals of which are to improve classroom practice, and to 'empower' teachers.
METHODOLOGY The ideal time to learn a second language. This age group tends to outperform adults and to progress more rapidly than younger learners.
PSYCHOLOGY These factors positively or negatively influence language learning. Often contrasted with cognitive factors such as intelligence and learning style.
VOCABULARY An element that is added to a word and which changes its meaning..
LINGUISTICS The language learning opportunities that exist in a learner's linguistic 'environment.' Maximized with meaningful activities and giving learners feedback.
METHODOLOGY Control of your own actions, including your mental activity. A factor that contributes to motivation.
LINGUISTICS Concerned with the application of linguistic theory to solving language-related problems in the real world.
LINGUISTICS Also called stance; the way speakers and writers use language to express their personal attitude to what is being said or written.
SOCIOLINGUISTICS Using language in a way that is suitable for the context and in a way that meets the expectations of the people you are communicating with. An aspect of sociolinguistic competence, which is a component of a speaker's overall communicative competence. (Dell Hymes)
SLA To make something your own. Gaining ownership of a skill by first doing it with someone who is more skilled than you are until you can control or regulate the skill yourself.
PSYCHOLOGY The innate talent or predisposition for language learning. 3 kinds of ability: auditory, linguistic, memory.
GRAMMAR The way the speaker's 'view' of an event is expressed by the verb phrase, regardless of the time of the event itself. 2 of these in English: progressive and perfect.
PSYCHOLOGY The sense that what is happening is connected to what has just happened and what is about to happen.
METHODOLOGY Became widespread in the US in the 1950s and 60s. Distinctive feature=drilling of sentence patterns. Spoken language was prioritized; translation and the use of metalanguage were discouraged.
LINGUISTICS Became a priority with the communicative approach. The idea of "grade the task, not the text" was born. This kind of interaction is both more communicative and offers more affordances for learning.
PSYCHOLOGY The ability to perform a task without having to focus attention on it.
PSYCHOLOGY Also called self-directed learning. The capacity to take responsibility for your own learning.
PSYCHOLOGY assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts off as a clean slate i.e. tabula rasa and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.
SLA second language added to first without threatening the speaker's first language identity; negative the second language replaces the first, threatening the speaker's language identity.
cognitive learning theory
PSYCHOLOGY A learning theory that draws upon ideas from cognitive psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with perception and thinking. Piaget first proposed the view that language develops out of the child's thoughts and growing awareness of the world.
DISCOURSE How the sentences in a text relate to each other.
DISCOURSE The use of grammatical and lexical means to achieve connected text.
VOCABULARY Words that frequently occur together.
SLA Ways that learners get around the fact that they may not know how to say something, but that help the learner achieve their intended message: paraphrase, word coinage, foreignizing a word, approximation, all-purpose words, language-switching, paralinguistics, appealing for help.
SLA Abandoning a message or replacing an original messae with one that is less ambitious.
METHODOLOGY Activity in which real communication occurs. Key features: purposefulness, reciprocity, negotiation, unpredictability, heterogeneity, synchronicity.
METHODOLOGY from the 1970s. based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning
METHODOLOGY An emphasis on deep-end communication. You learn language by using it. Led to task-based learning.
METHODOLOGY An emphasis on shallow-end communication. You learn language and then you use it. Learn the language systems first and then put them to communicative use.
LINGUISTICS First proposed by Dell Hymes, what you know in order to be able to communicate effectively. The term contrasts with linguistic competence (Chomsky). Hymes introduced the notion of appropriacy.
community language learning
METHODOLOGY Also called counseling learning, a teaching method developed by Charles Curran in the 70s in the US. The learners (clients) sit in a circle having a conversation. They consult with the teacher-knower, who is outside the circle, to help formulate each utterance. The conversation is recorded, played back, translated, transcribed, boarded and read aloud.
LINGUISTICS What we intuitively know about a language in order to be able to use it.
METHODOLOGY A specific practial skill. sometimes in the form of 'can do' statements.
SLA Gauged by the following factors: amount of subordination, complex sentences, reference, lexical/linking verb ratio, conjunctions
PSYCHOLOGY The process of understanding speech or writing.
computer-mediated communication CMC
METHODOLOGY The use of networked computers in order to communicate. Can be synchronous (people communicate in real time) or asynchronous (delayed communication).
GRAMMAR Also called agreement. The name given to the grammatical relationship whereby the form of one word requires a corresponding form in another. In English, it's the case with subjects and verbs (I like, He likes...).
PHONOLOGY a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound. This can occur either within a word or between words. In rapid speech, for example, "handbag" is often pronounced [ˈhæmbæɡ]. /m/; /t/ /d/=/p//b/; /t//d/=/k//g/
PHONOLOGY This happens when a sound is omitted, because another, similars, sound follows. walked to=walktuh; baked beans= bakebeans; last week=lasweek; next, please=neksplease
PHONOLOGY This is where a sound is introduced at word boundaries, especially after words ending in a vowel, as in law and order=lohrandorder
PHONOLOGY This is the pausing (or lack of pausing) at the boundary between two sounds, which accounts for the difference between ice cream and I scream.
PSYCHOLOGY A model of learning which belongs to what are called usage-based accounts of language acquisition. It assumes we are mentally predisposed to look for associations between elements and create links between them in response to frequently encountered patterns of usage.
PSYCHOLOGY The way that learners become aware, or are made aware, of features of the language they are learning. Things teachers do with this potential: enhancing the input in some way so as to make certain items more salient; asking learners to infer rules from examples -inductive learning; asking them to compare their own output with that of more proficient users of the target language -noticing the gap; problematizing the input
PSYCHOLOGY A theory of learning that claims that individuals actively construct knowledge, rather than passively receiving it. Supports the case for learner-centered instruction and experiential learning. Underscores the argument for personalization. Key figures=Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner.
content and language integrated learning
METHODOLOGY CLIL Teaching a subject through English. Also called content-based teaching. A strong form of the communicative approach in that there is no predetermined language syllabus.
SLA The way the the linguistic systems of two languages are compared and contrasted.
direct approach to conversation
METHODOLOGY Argues that the characteristic features of conversation, as identified in conversation analysis, should be taught explicitly and in isolation, before being integrated into freer practice activities. These features include conversational gambits, turn-taking, use of discourse markers, appraisal language, vague language, etc.
indirect approach to conversation
METHODOLOGY Argues that conversation is best learned by having conversations. Syllabus might consist of a list of topics to talk about or of situations where conversations are likely to occur.
DISCOURSE Concerned with describing the structure of conversational interaction, including the sequential organization of talk and the ways that speakers repair communication problems. The basic unit of talk is the turn.
DISCOURSE The principle that speakers try to co-operate with one another. When people take part in a conversation they do so on the assumption that the other speakers will observe certain unstated rules. First articulated by H.P. Grice, included 4 maxims:
maxim of quantity:
maxim of quality:
maxim of relation:
maxim of manner:
DISCOURSE The ability to infer from what has been said what has not been said.
LINGUISTICS A collection of actually occurring texts (either spoken or written) stored and accessed by means of computers, and useful for investigating language use.
LINGUISTICS The use of corpora for researching language structure and use; has lead to the development of grammars and dictionaries that claim to be more reliable than their forbears, in that they are based on attested data.
METHODOLOGY The design of a language teaching program and of the specific materials to be used on a program. Stages include needs analysis, goal setting, syllabus design, materials choice, assessment instruments, evaluation procedures.
METHODOLOGY Has roots in progressive education and is also sometimes called transformative education. Gained prominence through Paulo Freire. Assumes that education can never be purely disinterested or neutral.
LINGUISTICS Refers to those highly valued activities and artifacts related to the arts.
PSYCHOLOGY Occurs when a rule or a generalization is first presented to the learners, and then they go on to apply it in practice activities. Associated with approaches such as grammar-translation. Can be very effective in teaching form of the language.
GRAMMAR The way language points to spatial, temporal and personal features of the context.
SOCIOLINGUISTICS A regional or social variety of a language.
METHODOLOGY a classroom dictation activity where learners are required to reconstruct a short text by listening and noting down key words, which are then used as a base for reconstruction
METHODOLOGY An umbrella term for a wide range of language teaching methods that emerged in the later part of the 19th century.
They shared the belief that only the target language should be used in the classroom and that therefore translation should be avoided at all costs. Started with Maxmilian Berlitz.
DISCOURSE Any connected piece of speech or writing.the study of the ways in which language is used in texts and contexts , and how they achieve both cohesion and coherence.
DISCOURSE A principle in which new information is placed at the end of a sentence rather than at the beginning, which is normally reserved for given information.
DISCOURSE Also called pragmatic markers. Words or expressions that normally come at the beginning of an utterance, and function to orient the listener to what will follow.
DISCOURSE Used to connect what has been said to what follows. and, but, or, so, because
METHODOLOGY Opportunity for learners to interact freely and spontaneously, to cope with unpredictability, to voice opinions using language that is both complex and fluent.
METHODOLOGY Questions asked by the teachers in order that learners can 'display' their knowledge. They typically initiate a 3 part exchange that is characteristic of classroom interaction and is called IRF (interaction, response, follow-up). Usually aimed at finding out what learners can say in the TL. Contrast with real questions.
METHODOLOGY The name of a loose collective of teachers who challenge what they consider to be an over-reliance on materials, including published coursebooks, in current language teaching.
METHODOLOGY Can provide entertaining practice opportunities, as well as offering a useful springboard into real-life language use. A greater range of registers can be practised than are normally available in classroom talk. Can include roleplays and simulations.
METHODOLOGY Repetitive oral practice of a language item, whether a word, a sound, a phrase or a sentence structure.
METHODOLOGY The actions and interactions, both conscious and unconscious, that take place between members of a group, whether the whole class or sub-group.
METHODOLOGY Combining techniques and activities from different methods in your teaching. Motivated by different reasons, one being a general distrust of a 'one size fits all' method.
DISCOURSE the omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues. Very common in spoken language and is also a common feature of certain text types where brevity is a priority (i.e. postcards).
SLA An instance of the learner's language that does not conform to accepted norms of usage, and which is attributed to incomplete or faulty learning.
METHODOLOGY Not to be confused with assessment. Can be ongoing (formative): getting feedback on the curriculum in action. Can be final (summative): when the outcomes of the program are evaluated according to the goals that were established at the outset. Procedures involve the use of questionnaires, interviews, observation, meetings and focus groups.
METHODOLOGY A formal test that is usually administered by some examining body.
METHODOLOGY An activity that involves the controlled manipulation of the forms of the language. include gap fills, sentence transformations, ordering exercises, matching exercises, insertion exercises, deletion exercises, translation exercises, error-correction exercises.
METHODOLOGY A general term for 'deep end' approaches to learning that rate direct practical experience over the learning and application of abstract rules.
METHODOLOGY A way of thinking about teaching that recognizes the fact that teachers do not directly cause learning, but that they can provide the conditions in which learning happens. The notion comes from humanist theory and partly from critical pedagogy, both of which credit the learner with agency in the learning process. Community Language Learning is a good example of this.
SLA The information, either immediate or delayed, that learners get on their performance. Traditionally takes the form of correction. Can be explicit or implicit.
GRAMMAR Show that they are related to a subject by having person, number and tense. (sometimes called main verbs) is a verb that has a subject. For example:- I live in Germany.
GRAMMAR Do not show person, number or tense contrasts. The infinitive, present and past participles are forms of these. "Before working for his uncle, Brad used to work for his father."
first language acquisition
PSYCHOLOGY It takes place relatively quickly. It is systematically staged. It happens despite the 'poverty of the stimulus.' It results from contact and interaction and not from any formal teaching. Given a reasonable amount of exposure, it is always 100% successful. We are hard-wired to learn a first language.
critical period hypothesis
PSYCHOLOGY Neurological factors occurring at puberty mean that thereafter you can't just pick up a language as you did when you were a child.
SLA The ability to speak a language idiomatically and accurately, without undue pausing, without an intrusive accent, and in a manner appropriate to the context. The ability to produced and maintain speech in real time.
focus on form
SLA When conscious attention is directed to some formal feature of the language input. It has been argued that this is a necessary condition for language learning. Meaning is not enough. It can occur at any stage in classroom instruction. Correction is also a kind of this.
LINGUISTICS The way a word, phrase or sentence is written or pronounced, independent of its meaning. Often contrasted with function.
SOCIOLINGUISTICS A style of language that is appropriate in situations where there is social distance between speakers, or where the situation or topic requires a degree of seriousness. It is more common in print, such as in official documents. Characterized by:
complex sentences, frequent use of the passive, reported speech, fast modals, long and complex noun phrases, long words with Greek or Latin roots.
METHODOLOGY When a teacher draws learners' attention to features of spoken or written language using:
modelling, finger-coding, cuisenaire rods, boardwork, substitution tables. Takes place in close association with the meaning of the item.
LINGUISTICS Those sentences of two or more words that operate as a single unit. They are not generated word by word, but are stored in the memory and retrieved as if they were one-word vocabulary items. Also called lexical chunks,
SLA When an error becomes a permanent feature of a learner's interlanguage. In theory such errors are resistant to correction. I
LINGUISTICS The communicative purpose of a language item. It is also the communicative uses to which forms and meanings are put.
METHODOLOGY A syllabus based around a list of language functions. Often combined with notions. They were developed to support a communicative approach. If these have survived at all, it's as one strand in a multi-layered syllabus.
GRAMMAR Those words which have a mainly grammatical function (also called grammar words). Includes auxiliary verbs, determiners, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and some adverbs. Contrast with content words. Of the 50 most common words in English, 49 are these.
FUNCTION Expressed by
will + infinitive
going to + infinitive
will + be + present participle
will + have + past participle
Sometimes determined by speaker's perception of, or attitude to, the future event being referred to.
LINGUISTICS Any type of spoken or written discourse which is used and recognized by members of a particular culture or sub-culture.
LINGUISTICS Prescribes correct usage, according to the standards of some group. What you ought or ought not to say. Seen as a marker of group membership. Not what we mean in the context of EFL/ESL.
LINGUISTICS Describes, in a systematic way, the rules that govern how words are combined and sequenced in order to form sentences in a given language. Deal with morphology and syntax. Can be formal or functional.
LINGUISTICS A kind of descriptive grammar designed for teaching and learning purposes. Focuses on grammar as a subsystem of overall language proficiency, as distinct from form, phonology or discourse. More selective than a linguist's grammar. Formal rather than functional.
LINGUISTICS The way that a language is represented in your mind: it is the internalized, and usually implicit, knowledge about the way the language works. It is part of every user's competence. Should not be confused with accuracy.
LINGUISTICS A term coined by the applied linguist Diane Larsen-Freeman in order to capture the notion of grammar being more a skill than an inert body of knowledge. The process by which a sequence of words if fine-tuned in order to create a more complex message than mere words can express.
METHODOLOGY Developed out of a way that classical languages (Greek and Latin) were traditionally taught. It wasn't fully formalized until the mid-19th century, when it became institutionalized in schools in Germany. First known as the Prussian Method. Grammar is taught deductively (rules first) and accuracy is highly prioritized.
VOCABULARY Words that are written and pronounced the same way, but have different meanings.
I like pizza. What does she look like?
VOCABULARY Words that are written the same way, but pronounced differently, and which have different meanings.
A long and windy road. A windy night.
METHODOLOGY Learning approaches that assert the central role of the 'whole person' in the learning process.
VOCABULARY A specific item of a larger category. An orange is a fruit (orange is the specific item).
VOCABULARY A larger category with specific items under its umbrella. An orange is a fruit (fruit is the larger category).
FUNCTION Contrasts with factual meaning and refers to situations that are assumed to be improbable or impossible. Sometimes the term counterfactual is used to describe impossibility. Frequently expressed by conditional constructions.
PSYCHOLOGY Speakers make accent and dialect choices in order to align themselves with particular socially and geographically defined groups. Learners can also try to identify with a discourse community.
VOCABULARY A word sequence whose meaning is not literal cannot be easily worked out from its individual words. Can be classified in a variety of ways:
metaphorical: the tip of the iceberg
restricted collocations: fat chance
phrasal verbs: pick up
frozen similes: as old as the hills,
proverbs and catchphrases: waste not, want not
euphemisms: pass away
true idioms fixed and non-literal: spill the beans,
LINGUISTICS The extent to which a person's language sounds native-like. Has been a key influence on the development of the lexical approach.
SLA When children, as a group, are taught some or all of their school subjects in a language that is not their mother tongue.
individual learner differences
PSYCHOLOGY Variations based on learning styles, abilities, needs and drives. Reflected in the differences in the rate at which learners learn and in their eventual levels of attainment.
PSYCHOLOGY The process of working out rules on the basis of examples. Also called discovery learning. .
SLA the spoken or written language that learners are exposed to. Krashen argues that this is all that is necessary for language acquisition to take place, but it must be comprehensible and one step above the learner's interlanguage.
SLA According to cognitive learning theory, the conscious process of noticing features of input results in this. The part that was taken into short-term memory, the first step in the process off accommodating it into the learner's developing interlanguage system.
METHODOLOGY The way that teachers manage classroom learning. Usually verbal. Will normally include some of the following features:
a frame, a brief summary, the organization, the procedure, the mode, the outcome, a strategy, the timing, a cue
PHONOLOGY When other people can understand what you are saying. Has resulted in the phonological core--features of phonology that are crucial.
SLA When learners communicate with one another, or with their teacher, or with the other speakers of the target language.
SLA Michael Long's theory that tasks that promote negotiation of meaning are beneficial. Exchanges where learners jointly resolve a communication problem provide a source of comprehensible input.
SLA The grammatical system that a learner creates in the course of learning another language. it is neither their first language system, nor the target language system, but occupies a transitional point between the two.
PHONOLOGY The music of speech. A suprasegmental feature of pronunciation, meaning that it is a property of whole stretches of speech rather than of individual segments.
SLA The non-conscious and natural process of internalizing the rules of a language, as in L1. What is popularly called picking up a language. Learners will construct a mental grammar of the language naturally by a process called creative construction.
SLA The claim that acquisition and learning are separate, independent processes, that do not influence one another.
LINGUISTICS The study of the systems of a language, such as grammar and phonology, for the purposes of the language. Typical topic areas are tense, modality, vocabulary, discourse analysis, phonemes, stress and intonation.
LINGUISTICS A teacher's or learner's explicit knowledge about language, often gained through language analysis. Includes not only systems of the subject language, such as its grammar and phonology, but also knowledge of its social and cultural role.
METHODOLOGY Aims to give learners more say in areas that are traditionally considered the domain of the teacher or of the institution. Movement toward learner autonomy. Also describes ways of organizing classroom interaction so that the focus is directed away from the teacher.
METHODOLOGY The aim of this is to help learners make the most of the learning opportunities that are available to them.
PSYCHOLOGY Techniques or behaviors that learners consciously apply in order to enhance their learning.
PSYCHOLOGY When learners repeat, under their breath, what they have just heard.
PSYCHOLOGY Your preferred way of learning. Can be influenced by biographical factors or by innately endowed factors. Usually presented in polarities.
METHODOLOGY The way that individual lessons are structured. Provides a secure framework within which a certain amount of spontaneity and improvisation can be accommodated. Includes PPP, TTT, TBL.
presentation practice production
METHODOLOGY Lesson design in which a pre-selected grammar item is first presented using direct method techniques, then practiced in a controlled way, then produced by means of a freer, productive activity such as a roleplay.
test teach test
METHODOLOGY Lesson design in which learners first perform a task; the T uses this in order to identify the learners' specific language needs; they are then taught whatever it is they need in order to re-do the task more effectively.
model muddle meddle
METHODOLOGY Lesson design in which the teacher models a task; learners attempt to do the same task in pairs or small groups, while the teacher monitors, intervening where necessary in order to help the learners perform the task effectively; finally, individuals perform the task to the whole group.
METHODOLOGY Lesson design proposed by Jim Scrivener that focuses on authentic language use, restricted language use and then clarification. These stages can be rearranged and occur many times within one lesson.
METHODOLOGY A document that maps out the teacher's intentions for the lesson. It reflects the teacher's planning decisions as well as the teacher's understanding of the principles of lesson design.
METHODOLOGY An approach to language teaching that has chosen vocabulary -including collocations and formulaic language/chunks- as the main focus for syllabus design and classroom teaching.
VOCABULARY A term used to get around the fuzziness of the word 'word.' Any item that functions as a single meaning unit, regardless of its different derived forms, or of the number of words that make it up.
VOCABULARY Sets of words that share a meaning relationship. menu, starter, napkin, wine glass, tip, bill all share a meaning relationship. Sometimes a close association can cause 'interference'.
GRAMMAR A content verb, not a function verb. It has a dictionary meaning, rather than serving any sort of grammatical function.
LINGUSTICS A technical term for the vocabulary of a language, as opposed to its grammar.
SOCIOLINGUISTICS The often destructive effect that majority languages have on minority languages and cultures.
LINGUISTICS The study of human language in general. Includes not only the structure of language -grammar, phonetics, semantics, but also the purposes for which language is used -pragmatics.
DISCOURSE Words that join what has already been said or written to what follows. Show the sense relationship between the two linked elements and include:
additives -and, firstly, summatives -in sum, appositives -namely, in other words, contrastives -but, instead, concessives -however, resultatives -so, therefore, temporals -then, next.
METHODOLOGY The skill of understanding spoken language; can be practiced through comprehension activities, bottom-up processing activities, top-down processing activities,
SOCIOLINGUISTICS The ability to read and write in a language, usually one's own. Increasingly becoming a necessary skill in ESL/EFL.
DISCOURSE Refers to texts that have a mainly expressive function and which are highly valued in a particular culture. These texts do not feature much in ELT material because they are considered difficult.
METHODOLOGY Anything that is used to support the learning process. Includes coursebooks, workbooks, visual aids, charts, etc.
LINGUISTICS Language consists of forms that express certain meanings. The study of meaning is called semantics. Can be literal (denotation) or simply associated or cultural (connotation).
METHODOLOGY To intentionally commit something to memory.
PSYCHOLOGY Distinguish between:
sensory: An echo or visual impression that lasts only a few seconds
working: holds and processes information in the short term
long-term: the part that stores information more permanently.
PSYCHOLOGY The theory that language is an innate property of mind. Primarily associated with the work of Noam Chomsky, and represents a reaction to a purely behaviorist view of language acquisition and a return to the rationalist philosophy of Descartes: "I think, therefore I am."
LINGUISTICS A figure of speech where one thing is stated in terms of another. Tends to be associated with literary language. They structure the way we think about, and perceive, the world.
METHODOLOGY A system for the teaching of a language that is based either on a particular theory of language or on a particular theory of learning, or both. T.
PHONOLOGY A pair of words which differ in meaning when only one sound (one phoneme) is changed. The differences can be either vowels or consonants.
METHODOLOGY A marked difference among learners in terms of aptitude, learning style and/or motivation. Should be distinguished from mixed levels. Can be viewed as either a classroom management issue or as a syllabus and materials issue. More acute problem in narrow-band curriculum than in broad-band curriculum.
METHODOLOGY Curriculum in which each stage of the syllabus is highly specified, usually in terms of discrete items of grammar, and where mastery of one stage is a prerequisite for the next. Learning is viewed as segmented, incremental and sequential.
METHODOLOGY Curriculum in which objectives are broadly identified, eg in terms of general competencies. Allows each learner to contribute to the best of his/her abilities. Also allows for the teaching and learning of a variety of language areas concurrently. Learning is viewed as holistic, emergent and concurrent. Better suited to cope with diversity and turn it into a resource.
GRAMMAR The lexical and grammatical ways used by speakers to express their attitude to what they are saying. Can be divided into two groups: extrinsic and intrinsic.
GRAMMAR A class of auxiliary verb. There are nine 'pure'. Pure in the sense that they fulfill the formal requirements of auxiliary verbs: form their negatives with 'not'; form questions by inversion with their subject; always 1st in the verb phrase. Can express 2 kinds of meaning: likelihood/possibility -extrinsic or speaker's attitude -intrinsic.
SLA When speakers attend to what they are saying as they say it. Krashen's ____ hypothesis claims that learners use knowledge that they have learned in order to edit utterances that are generated by knowledge that they have acquired.
PHONOLOGY The smallest meaningful unit in a language. Mean ing ful. Mean can stand on its own -free morpheme, but ing and ful can't -bound morphemes. Bound morphemes are mainly affixes.
GRAMMAR a study and description of word formation (such as inflection, derivation, and compounding) in language.
the system of word-forming elements and processes in a language
PSYCHOLOGY What drives learners to achieve a goal; a key factor in determining success or failure in language learning. A
PSYCHOLOGY First proposed by Howard Gardner, views intelligence as being multi-dimensional. Includes: verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinasthetic, musical/rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal.
FUNCTION Telling stories. A universal function of language.
METHODOLOGY First used in the 19th century to describe teaching methods such as the direct method, that attempted to mirror the process of learning a first language. Translation and grammar explanations were rejected, learners were exposed to sequences of actions and the spoken form was taught before the written form. Term was resurrected by Tracy Terrell in the 70s. Endorsed by Krashen and shared principles with TPR.
naturalistic language acquisition
SLA Language acquisition that takes place in naturalistic (ie, non-classroom) settings. Contrasts with instructed language acquisition.
METHODOLOGY The process of specifying the learners' language needs in advance of designing a course for them, especially an ESP course. Data are usually collected by means of questionnaires or interviews.
PSYCHOLOGY A theory about the way the mind processes experience and language. Concerned with the brain, language and learning. Shares with the theory of multiple intelligences the view that the mind is predisposed to process experience in different ways/modalities.
SLA When your attention is attracted to a feature of the language that you are exposed to and you make a mental note of it. Proponents of cognitive learning theory believe that it's a prerequisite for learning, but not the only one. Turns 'noise' into input before it becomes intake (before it's moved into long-term memory).
SLA To include an item lots of times in a text to increase the chances of learners noticing it.
noticing the gap
SLA When learners are made aware of a gap in their language knowledge. Can trigger the restructuring of interlanguage.
METHODOLOGY A syllabus that is organized according to general areas of meaning that are used in most grammars. A reversal of the form to meaning organization. When combined with functions, forms the backbone of the communicative approach. Survives now as just one strand of what are known as multi-layered syllabuses.
GRAMMAR The person or thing in a sentence or clause that is affected by the action of the verb. Usually a noun phrase or a pronoun.
one to one teaching
METHODOLOGY Individualized instruction, in contrast to the teaching of small or large groups. Usually occurs face to face, and at times, over the phone, or at a distance.
order of acquisition
SLA The order in which grammar items are thought to be acquired. It is also called the natural order and the order of development.
SLA The theory that output, especially spoken output, is a necessary condition for language acquisition. Contradicts Krashen's input hypothesis. Merrill Swain argues that learners have to be pushed to produce comprehensible output as well. Forces learners to pay attention to features of the grammar that they might otherwise not notice. Puts them in a better position to notice the gaps in their language knowledge. Developed out of immersion teaching in Canada.
METHODOLOGY A form of classroom interaction in which learners work in pairs to achieve a task. Open pairs, closed pairs. Can be organized around mingling or milling, dyadic circles, parallel lines, poster carousel
LINGUISTICS A way of displaying the different forms of a word in the form of a list or table. The relationship between elements in a chain is called a syntagmatic relationship: This little pig went to market; this little pig stayed at home. Went and stayed have the same paradigmatic relationship, as do the words market and home.
These are typically displayed in substitution tables.
DISCOURSE A way of organizing written texts into a sequence of topic-related sentences. The division of a text into these is an indication of its macro-structure. These contribute to the overall coherence of a text.
LINGUISTICS The study of non-linguistic means of vocal communication. This includes the different kinds of voice quality, as well as the use of loudness, intonation and tempo to convey particular emotions and attitudes. A
SLA One of the 2 components of Chomsky's universal grammar. Different languages construct phrases differently. The limited choice of variants is controlled by ____s. These are switched to one setting or another when the child is first exposed to language data. English is head-first (verbs before their complements). The choice between head-first and head-last is governed by a ____. Principles are universal, but ___s are language-specific. Learning a second language involves learning its particular ___ settings.
GRAMMAR The process of analyzing sentences into their component parts. Once a staple activity in traditional grammar teaching. Also the term used to describe the largely unconscious mental processes by which a reader or listener works out the grammatical structure of sentences or utterances.
GRAMMAR Non-finite forms of verbs. That is, they don't show contrasts of tense, number or person, and they can't occur alone as the main verb of the sentence. There are two types: present and past. Generally, present ___ expresses the course of a process; past ___ describes its result or effects.
GRAMMAR Contrasts with active, and together they make up the system called voice. Voice is the way that the relationship between the subject and the object of the verb can be changed without changing the basic meaning of the sentence. Many reasons for this: to distribute information according to what is not known and what is known. Only transitive verbs can take this voice. Much more common in written language.
GRAMMAR A passive construction followed by a by-phrase, identifying the agent.
GRAMMAR A passive construction without a by-phrase. Used when the agent is not known, is obvious or because the speaker doesn't wish to identify the agent.
DISCOURSE A word or sound used to avoid frequent, long or silent pauses. Used to maintain fluency.
GRAMMAR One of the two verb aspects in English, the other being the progressive. It combines with tense. The basic meaning is 'before--and connected to--a point in time.' At least 2 reasons to view an event in this retrospective way:
1. although finished, it is still relevant.
2. to indicate that an event is unfinished. Why it often combines with expressions of duration.
METHODOLOGY When someone uses language to talk about their own knowledge, experience and feelings.
DISCOURSE Language whose purpose is to smooth the conduct of social relations. Unlike transactional language, this language has an interpersonal function. Typically formulaic, as in the case of greetings, and is a characteristic of what is called small talk.
PHONOLOGY One of the distinctive sounds of a particular language. It is not any sound, but it is a sound that, to speakers of a language, cannot be replaced with another sound without causing a change in meaning.
PHONOLOGY A phonetic variation of the same phoneme. Does not affect meaning.
PHONOLOGY The science of speech sounds, including the ways that these sounds are produced, transmitted and received. Language teaching is less concerned with this than phonology.
METHODOLOGY An approach to the teaching of L1 reading that is based on the principle of identifying sound-letter relationships and using this knowledge to 'sound out' unfamiliar words when reading.
PHONOLOGY The name given to those features of pronunciation that are considered essential in order to be understood when speaking English as an International Language.
PHONOLOGY The study of the sound system of a particular language, and how this system is used by its speakers to express meaning.
GRAMMAR A combination of a verb and one or two particles. The particle is either an adverb or a preposition, or both. Four types:
prepositional verbs: V + Prep. particle + object 'Can you deal with it?'
intransitive phrasal verbs: V + adv. particle 'A storm blew up.'
transitive phrasal verbs: V + adv. particle + object 'I'll pick you up at 8.'
phrasal prepositional verbs: V + adv. particle + prep. + object 'We've run out of gas.'
GRAMMAR A unit of one or more words that form a single element of a clause structure. It occupies the level on the grammatical hierarchy between individual words and clauses. 5 types, each associated with one of the 5 word classes: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition.
DISCOURSE Social behavior which expresses positive attitudes to other people. Can take the form of thanking, paying compliments, showing agreement, using terms of address that increase the hearer's sense of importance, using terms of familiarity that imply a close friendship, even if there isn't one.
DISCOURSE Social behavior which avoids imposing on others. Achieved by saying please or acknowledging imposition and then apologizing.
VOCABULARY "Many meanings." Refers to the case where one word has more than one related meaning. Thus, the word "chip" can mean 1) a piece of deep-fried potato, 2) a small piece of wood, 3) an electronic component. The words all have a common, core meaning.
TESTING A collection of original work that is put together by a student for the purposes of assessment. It may include samples of classwork, homework, or even audio/video recordings. May also include some form of self-assessment or reflection.
FUNCTION Degrees of likelihood of past, present and future events and situations. Degrees range from certainty, through probability, to impossibility. Expressed by:
modal verbs (may, could)
adverbials (perhaps, maybe, probably)
adjectives (likely, possible)
nouns (chance, likelihood)
A distinction is made between factual ___ and theoretical ___.
The beach may be crowded. vs. The beach can be crowded.
METHODOLOGY To do something a number of times in order to gain control of it. Fundamental to cognitive learning theory.
Controlled: can be controlled in language or in interaction.
Free: allows learners a measure of creativity, and the opportunity to integrate the new item into their existing language 'pool.'
mechanical: form of controlled where the focus is less on the meaning of an item than on manipulating its component parts.
meaningful: requires learners to display some understanding of what the item that they are using actually means.
LINGUISTICS The study of how language is used and interpreted by its learners in real-world situations.
LINGUISTICS The knowledge that language users have that enables them to take contextual factors into account when using and interpreting language.
LINGUISTICS A manual that states rules for how language shoudl be used, rather than how it is used. Many traditional grammars were of this type, and most manuals of correct usage and style guides still are. This type of grammar is considered at best a curiosity and at worst reactionary.
METHODOLOGY The stage of a lesson in which a new language item--typically a grammar structure, but can also be vocabulary, pronunciation or features of discourse--is introduced to the learners.
LINGUISTICS The process by which, through repeated encounters, a word gathers particular associations. These associations may be with other words, as is the case with collocations. Or may be semantic associations (particular meanings), colligtions (grammatical patterns). These patterns are strengthened through repeated encounters.
LINGUISTICS First elaborated by Michael Hoey, suggests that learning a language is essentially learning the primings of its words. This includes its grammar, which itself is the accumulated effect o the primings of function words. According to this approach, learners need massive exposure to input, and guidance in extracting patterns from it.
SLA The degree of skill with which a learner can use the language.
GRAMMAR One of the two verb aspects in English. Combines with tense to tell us what an action is/was like. The event is viewed as being 'in progress' (in the present or in the past, depending on the tense). Not usually possible with stative verbs.
METHODOLOGY The preparation and presentation of a project, either by an individual or (more usually) a group. The rationale is essentially the same as TBL. The preparation of these usually extends over more than one lesson.
GRAMMAR The relatively small word class of words that can be used to substitute for a noun or a noun phrase.
PHONOLOGY The general term for that part of language classes and courses that deals with aspects of phonology in English. Includes segmental and suprasegmental features. Can be either integrated or segregated. Integrated=dealt with as part of the teaching of skills of grammar and vocabulary, or of speaking and listening. Segregated=treated in isolation.
Pre-emptive or reactive.
GRAMMAR a word or phrase that is used before a noun to show the amount of it that is being considered:
GRAMMAR a sentence or phrase used to find out information
METHODOLOGY A receptive skill, but it doesn't mean that it's passive. It's an active, even interactive process. Learners need to be able to decode the letters, words and grammatical structures of the individual sentences
PHONOLOGY The type of pronunciation of British English that is considered the regionally neutral standard. Provides the model most widely used in the teaching of British English. The argument for using this English in recent years has been challenged, especially with the growth of English as an international language.
DISCOURSE The relation between language forms and things in the real world.
Anaphoric: back reference
cataphroic: forward reference
exophoric: direct reference to the non-linguistic context
These all aid in cohesion. Deicitic terms typically have exophoric reference.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT A key stage in an experiential learning cycle that also includes planning, action andlearning. This involves more than simply remembering. Being able to think critically about experience, to identify problems, and to 're-frame' these problems. Also a component of the action research model.
LINGUISTICS varieties or styles of speaking and writing. Registers vary because the language is used for different purposes, in different contexts and for different audiences
DISCOURSE To correct or modify what you have just said, so as to make it more accurate or more intelligible. Can be self-initiated or other-initiated.
METHODOLOGY Underlies many language learning strategies, and it has always been considered a sound learning strategy. the act of doing or saying something again. something that happens in the same way as something that happened before
FUNCTION Belongs to the general class of speech acts that are about getting people to do things, such as commanding, persuading, and asking favors. Most of these involve the use of modal verbs.
SLA Responding to new information by re-organizing to accommodate it. The term in cognitive learning theory used to describe what seemed to happen to the learner's developing interlanguage system as it adapted to new input.
TESTING The process of reviewing previously studied material, especially in advance of a test. The most effective forms involve revisiting previously studied material and processing it in a novel way. This should happen as soon as possible after first meeting it, and then at successively longer intervals of time.
PHONOLOGY The way that some words are emphasized so as to give the effect of regular beats. Can be stress-timed (English) or syllable-timed (French and Spanish). Interacts with stress and intonation to help speakers organize speech into meaningful units.
PHONOLOGY Squeezing syllables in an utterance into the same amount of time so that they occupy the same length of time.
METHODOLOGY Regular procedures that impart a sense of structure, rhythm and flow to the class. Some are management-oriented, some are teaching-oriented.
PHONOLOGY Stressed syllables tend to recur at different intervals, and the intervening syllables are accommodated.
PHONOLOGY Syllables in the language are given equal length.
METHODOLOGY The set of instructions (usually written) that tells students what they have to do for a test or an exercise.
SLA The temporary interactional support that is given to learners while their language system is under construction. It is this support that enables them to perform a task at a level beyond their present competence.
PSYCHOLOGY The way that knowledge about a topic or a concept is represented and organized in the mind. They help us to make sense of experience, and hence they are crucial in comprehension. Also used to refer to the temporary mental picture that a reader or listener constructs when processing a text.
SLA Any language that has been learned subsequent to the acquisition of the first language. The term additional language is sometimes preferred.
second language acquisition
SLA The study of how second (or additional) languages are acquired.
METHODOLOGY That part of a language teaching institution that is allocated to self-directed study. Popular at the height of the learner autonomy movement. Many are re-absorbed into the instution's library or turned into internet rooms.
LINGUISTICS The study of meaning, including the way words relate to the things that they refer to in the real world. In language teaching the focus is on the meaning relationship between words, such as similarity and oppositeness. Often contrasted with pragmatic meaning, in that it focuses on the literal meaning instead of the effect.
GRAMMAR the largest purely grammatical unit in a language. Everything beyond the ___ is only weakly linked in grammatical terms. In speaking, speech is sometimes broken into utterances instead.
GRAMMAR One speaker's turn or a stretch of speech between pauses, or one that falls under a single intonation contour, or one that fulfills a single function. Now generally accepted as preferable to sentence when talking about spoken language.
SLA The lengthy period of time children learning their first language go through when they simply listen before they venture their first words. Some researchers have argued that this is a necessary stage in language acquisition. It provides and opportunity to comprehend input.
METHODOLOGY A method that was developed by Caleb Gattegno in the '60s. Gattegno believed language learning was self-initiated and self-directed. T's role was as a facilitator.
METHODOLOGY A way in which language is used. These are divided into receptive -reading and listening and productive - speaking and writing.
SLA The process by which we become members of a particular group. It means adopting--or adapting to--the values and customs of the target group.
sociocultural learning theory
PSYCHOLOGY Comes from the pioneering work of Lev Vygotsky, Saw learning as a social process: through social interaction the learner is assisted from dependency toward autonomy. All learning--including L1 and L2--is mediated through social and cultural activity.
zone of proximal development
PSYCHOLOGY This is the 'window of opportunity' where the learner is not yet able to solve a problem independently, but can do so with the assistance of others. A feature of sociocultural learning theory.
SOCIOLINGUISTICS The study of the way language and society are interrelated, and in particular the way different social contexts influence language use.
METHODOLOGY An entertaining and often memorable way of contextualizing language. Have inbuilt repetition, which adds to their potential as sources for incidental learning. Many display instances of high frequency idiomatic language, including formulaic language. Downside=often ungraded, colloquial, and even ungrammatical.
METHODOLOGY Generally thought to be the most important of the 4 skills. Often equated with proficiency in the language. Main difficulties include: takes place spontaneously and in real time, so planning and production overlap.
DISCOURSE "Doing something" with words. Most require their purpose/illocutionary force to be inferred. The conditions that determine the appropriacy and interpretation of these are the concerns of pragmatics.
GRAMMAR Shares the same basic structure as that of written English, Utterance boundaries are less clearly defined in spoken language, and why co-ordination is preferred to subordination. Typically consists of frequent sequences of short clauses joined by and, but, then, because.
SOCIOLINGUISTICS The variety of English that is usually used in writing, taught in schools, and used as the model for teaching non-native speakers.
GRAMMAR Refer to states: I am curious. It's a wonderful life.
Refer to inactive emotional, cognitive or perceptual processes: I want to live. I know what you did last summer.
These cannot normally be used in the continuous.
PHONOLOGY The effect of emphasizing certain syllables by increasing their loudness, length or pitch. Can be at word level or sentence level. Learners start working this out on the basis of intuition, but highlighting it can be a useful memory aid. There is some evidence that words are stored and recalled according to their 'shape.'
LINGUISTICS A pattern that a language has for generating specific instances. Now loosely used to mean any grammar item that appears on a syllabus, and in particular the different combinations of tense and aspect. The communicative approach tried to replace these with functions, but these are easier than functions to grade.
LINGUISTICS A usually deliberate choice of a particular way of saying or writing something. There is often more than one way of conveying the same message. The choice is determined by 1) specific contextual factors; 2) a particular effect the person wants to achieve.
LINGUISTICS The study of style, or the way language is used to create particular effects, especially those associated with the expressive and literary uses of language. Rather than simply interpreting styles, it aims to explain them by employing the concepts and analytical techniques of linguistics and applying these to literary texts. Has a lot in common with genre analysis.
GRAMMAR One way of linking clauses so that one clause is embedded in another. This embedded clause is said to be dependent on the other clause. The conjunctions when, even if, although, because, while, after, unless are all used for this.
DISCOURSE The replacing of a noun phrase or a whole clause by a single word. This is done in order to avoid repetition, or to make a text more cohesive.
METHODOLOGY A way of displaying the way the different elements of a structure relate to one another, both on a horizontal axis, and on a vertical one. Horizontally (syntagmatic), the table displays the order of elements. Vertically (paradigmatic), it displays the items that may be substituted for one another.
FUNCTION Attempting to influence the behavior of people. Less forceful than a command, although it may be a way of disguising a command.
METHODOLOGY A method that applies principles of suggestion to teaching. Georgi Lozanov believes that, in the right conditions, the human mind is highly suggestible and capable of prodigious feats of learning -superlearning or accelerated learning.
PHONOLOGY A unit of pronunciation that is typically larger than a sound but smaller than a word. Consist of vowel sounds or combinations of vowels and consonants. Some consonants can form these on their own. It is difficult to say where one ends and another begins.
METHODOLOGY An item-by-item description of the teaching content of a course. On the basis of this a timetable/scheme of work can be drawn up. Helps specify what should be tested. A distinction is sometimes made between this and the curriculum.
VOCABULARY A word that has the same meaning as, or a very similar meaning to, another one. This relationship contrasts with other sense relations, such as antonymy and hyponymy. Words may have a similar meaning, but differ in style, in their geographical distribution, in their connotations or in their collocations.
GRAMMAR The rules for sequencing words so as to show their relationships of meaning within sentences. Contrasts with morphology. Together these make up what is traditionally known as grammar. Traditionally taught by the process of parsing sentences.
systemic functional linguistics
LINGUSTICS A model for linguistic analysis developed by Michael Halliday. It describes language as a network of a small fixed set of choices. It also describes the conditions for choosing among each set of choices.
METHODOLOGY A classroom activity whose focus is on communicating meaning. In contrast, practising a pre-selected item of language for its own sake would not be a valid __ objective.
METHODOLOGY An approach that makes the task the basic unit for planning and teaching. Rationale originated in the communicative approach, particularly in the deep-end version. You learn a language by using it.
PROFESSIONAL Refers to the ongoing professional growth of teachers, particularly that which takes place after their initial training.
a mentoring system
keeping a teaching journal
locally-based workshops and seminars
guided reading, and discussion
METHODOLOGY The term used to describe the variety of language used by teachers when addressing learners.. Generally refers to the way that teachers interact with their learners. T provides a source of input as well as feedback.
GRAMMAR Refers to the way that verbs are inflected to express a relation with time. . There are only really 2 of these in English: the present and the past.
TESTING A form of assessment given at the entry of a course to ascertain a learner's level.
TESTING A form of assessment given before the entry of a course to identify a learner's particular needs (as in needs analysis).
TESTING A form of assessment administered periodically during a course to monitor the learning process. Also called formative tests. These are set because they encourage revision.
TESTING A form of assessment administered at the end of a course to monitor the learning process. Also called summative tests.
TESTING Test in which the candidate has to achieve a certain agreed standard in order to pass.
TESTING Test in which there is no criterion for passing, but a candidate's results are interpreted in relation to the results of other candidates.
TESTING When a test measures accurately what it is intended to measure. Face, content and construct are different factors to consider.
TESTING When a test gives consistent results. Often an effect of the test design. Also at risk the more subjective the scoring is.
TESTING Test that combines various components of a skill.
TESTING Test that tests individual components in isolation.
TESTING How easily a test is able to be administered.
TESTING The way a test affects the classroom teaching that leads up to it.
METHODOLOGY An approach to lesson design in which decisions about what to teach are based on the way learners perform particular tasks. Also called a deep-end strategy, this approach grew out of the communicative approach. In this kind of lesson, the T first diagnoses learners' strengths and weaknesses in some sort of communicative activity. T then teaches the language they need to communicate more effectively. Finally, learners repeat the initial task (or something similar). Focused on learners' immediate needs, rather than a theoretical notion of their competence. A precursor to TBL.
DISCOURSE A continuous piece of spoken or written language. Normally consists of a number of linked sentences, and has a distinctive internal structure and an identifiable communicative function. Classified into genres. These are not as rule-bound as sentences, there is the expectation that they will be coherent. It is useful to teach language through ___s, rather than apart from them.
DISCOURSE The way messages are constructed. This is the 'point of departure' of the message. It typically expresses known (or given) information, often information that is carried over from a previous sentence. The rest of the sentence is called the rheme, and constitutes the new information.
METHODOLOGY Also called a scheme of work. The plan for a sequence of lessons that takes place over a fixed period of time.
DISCOURSE What the sentence is about. ___ and comment often correspond to what, in grammatical terms, are called subject and predicate. They also correspond to theme and rheme. Not always the subject. Also a term used in discourse and conversation analysi to refer to what people are talking about.
DISCOURSE The process of moving an element to the front of a sentence so that it functions as the topic.
total physical response
METHODOLOGY A language-teaching method that was developed by James Asher in the early 70s. Involves a sequence of commands that L1 learners see being demonstrated. Belongs firmly in the holistic camp. As a method, it's had only marginal impact, but as a classroom technique it's particularly suited to young learners.
SLA The effect that one language--particularly the L1--has on another. Can occur at all levels--pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and discourse.
GRAMMAR The capacity of a verb to take an object. Verbs with this capacity can be used in passive constructions. Some verbs can take two objects: a direct and an indirect object.
METHODOLOGY To produce a version of a written text in another language. In spoken texts, this is called interpretation. Has b
LINGUISTICS The name given to the theory that all languages share certain fundamental principles. Adopted by Noam Chomsky in order to argue that we are genetically programmed with an innate language leaning faculty (language acquisition device).
SLA What learners report to have learned from a language lesson. Typically doesn't match what the teacher intended to teach.
LINGUISTICS The way a community actually uses a language, as described in descriptive grammars of the language or in books of language ___. Also refers to a person's abstract knowledge of the rules of grammar (competence). This contrasts with use--using those rules to achieve some communicative purpose.
SLA A way of describing those theories of second language acquisition that argue that acquisition occurs primarily through engaging in communication. The bulk of learning is implicit and there is a direct effect of the frequency of encounters with an item.
DISCOURSE words and phrases that aren't very exact or precise. You might want to use these phrases if you aren't sure of all the details of something, to speak informally in a friendly way, or perhaps just to save time in a conversation
SLA A characteristic of learners' interlanguage in which they use more than one way of expressing the same idea, more or less interchangeably. May be systematic or free. Systematic=preferred to another in certain conditions, such as when learner is being more careful. Free=random and unsystematic.
METHODOLOGY Teaching the area of language learning that is concerned with word knowledge. In audiolingualism, this was subordinated to the teaching of grammar structures. Words were simply there to fill slots in the sentence patterns.
PHONOLOGY One which is produced while the vocal cords are vibrating. All English vowels are ___.
PHONOLOGY syllable sounds that become unstressed in connected speech and are often then pronounced as a schwa
METHODOLOGY An educational task that is carried out by means of the internet. The aim of this is to focus on processing information rather than simply copying it, and thereby to encourage analytic and critical thinking.
whole language learning
METHODOLOGY An educational approach to the teaching of literacy. Its guiding principle is that language skills are best learned in authentic, meaningful situations. Teacher=facilitator. Core principles:
VOCABULARY The smallest language item that can occur on its own. The concept has been refined to distinguish between:
word forms: written or spoken words that are spelled or pronounced as single units.
lexical items (lexemes): the way words are represented in a dictionary: take, to take, taking.
GRAMMAR A group of words that, from a grammatical point of view, behave in the same way. The ___ of pronoun, determiner, preposition and conjunction are called closed classes because they cannot readily be added to. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are open.
VOCABULARY A group of words that share the same root but have different affixes: care, careful, careless, carefree, uncaring, carer. A base word plus its inflections and its most common derivatives.
VOCABULARY The process by which new words are created out of elements of existing ones. Affixation=adding prefixes or suffixes. Compounding=the joining together of two or more words.
GRAMMAR The way words are sequenced, particularly with regard to the sequencing of elements in a clause or sentence. A frequent source of learner error.
SOCIOLINGUISTICS Varieties of English (also called nationalized varieties) that are spoken in countries such as India, Nigeria and Singapore, where, for historical reasons, English plays an important second language role.
METHODOLOGY A productive skill that involves a hierarchy of sub-skills, including:
produce grammatically accurate sentences
select and maintain an appropriate style
signal the direction that the message is taking
Writers need an extensive knowledge base, not only at the level of vocabulary and grammar, but at the level of connected discourse.
product approach to writing
METHODOLOGY This is a traditional approach, in which students are encouraged to mimic a model text, which is usually presented and analysed at an early stage.
process approach to writing
METHODOLOGY focus more on the varied classroom activities which promote the development of language use: brainstorming, group discussion, re-writing.
genre-based approach to writing
METHODOLOGY An approach that is similar to a product approach. Starts with a model text (authentic) that is subjected to analysis and replication. These are closely associated with their contexts of use, and they are analyzed in functional terms as much as in linguistic ones. Has been particularly influential in the teaching of academic writing.
The extent to which a test appears to candidates, or those choosing it on behalf of candidates, to be an acceptable measure of the ability they wish to measure. This is a subjective judgement, and often considered not to be a true form of validity.
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