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68 terms

APUSH terms 30 & 31

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Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
NASA
National Aeronautic and Space Administration - 1958; to get US back in running with the Soviets in space race
Brown v. Board of Education
Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, overturned Plessey v Ferguson.
With all Deliberate Speed
Surpreme Court desicion of Brown case, states should end segregation with all deliberate speed - soon, no time table
Massive Resistance
Virginia government's policy which fought to resist the integration of public schools
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
founded by MLK Jr., to fight segregation. passive resistance stressed nonviolence and peaceful confrontation.
Jackie Robinson
First African American to play in Major League Baseball
Baby Boom
the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
Keynesian economics
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during economic slumps and be decrease during good times for the economy.
Jimmy Hoffa
United States labor leader who was president of the Teamsters Union
Disneyland
an amusement park in Anaheim created in 1955 by Walt Disney
Levittown
A new York town of mass-produced homes, which became a symbol for many similar suburban towns built during the post- World War II years.
Jonas Salk
Developed polio vaccine
J. Robert Oppenheimer
leader of Manhattan project
National Defense Education Act
Passed in response to Sputnik, it provided an oppurtunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation.
Multiversity
a university system having several separate campuses and colleges and research centers
The Organization Man
Written by William Whyte; attacked the way businesses wanted every employee to be just like the others to keep any individual from dominating or being a threat
The Lonely Crowd
Book written by David Riesman that criticized the people of the 50s who no longer made decisions based on morals, ethics and values; they were allowing society to tell them what is right and wrong.
Beats
a United States youth subculture of the 1950s
Saul Bellow
Canadian-born American Jewish writer. Novels that investigate isolation, spiritual dissociation, and the possibilities of human awakening. 'Herzog,' 'Seize the Day,' 'Henderson the Rain King.'
The Other America
book by michael harrington about poor americans. 1/5 living below poverty line
urban renewal
government programs for redevelopment of urban areas
john foster dulles
United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies
roll back
The term used to describe Eisenhower's tough stance against communism, rolling it back to the USSR
38th parrallel
After WWII Korea divided into two parts . US south. Soviet north
Ho-Chi Minh
north vietnam leader
Dien Bien Phu
French military base fell after a 56-day siege by Vietnam troops
Shah of Iran
title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran
Gamal Abdul Nassar
took power in egypt following a military coup - ousted britain from the suez canal zone
Suez Crisis
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba
Hungarian Revolution 1956
Led by students and workers. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary's military alliance with Moscow. The revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union.
Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet statesman and premier who denounced stalin
U-2 Incident
In which the Russians shot down a high altitude US spy plane over the Soviet Union; this incident exposed a secret US tactic for gaining information.
Televised presidential debates
forever altered the landscape of political campaigning. The Nixon-Kennedy debates were the first presidential debates to be broadcast to a nationwide television and radio audience. Millions of Americans watched or listened to the historic confrontation. (1960)
New Frontier
Kennedy's plan - supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wans to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military
The Kennedy Round
was the sixth session of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) trade negotiations held in 1964-1967 in Geneva, Switzerland. had four major goals: to slash tariffs by half with a minimum of exceptions, to break down farm trade restrictions, to strip away nontariff regulations, and to aid developing nations. Participation greatly increased over previous rounds. Sixty six nations, representing 80% of world trade attended the official opening on May 4, 1964 at the Palais des Nations.
The Great Society
LBJ's domestic policy that dealt with poverty and education.
Senator Barry Goldwater
Republican Senator from Arizona who ran for president in 1964 but lost to Johnson.
Office of Economic Opportunity
1965 - Part of the war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineffective due to the complexity of the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training, VISTA, and educational programs.
Food Stamps
government- issued coupons that recipients exchange for food
Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965
Extended educational aid to private and parochial schools while basing the aid given on students' economic conditions, rather than the schools themselves.
Immigration Act of 1965
abolished national origins quotas, dramatically increased immigration (especially from Asia and Latin America)
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
Congress Of Racial Equality
an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
freedom rides
CORE members rode buses from Washington to Alabama trying to protest segregation
James Meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi
Viet Cong
a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Resolution passed by the Senate in 1964 that allowed President Lyndon Johnson war-time powers whthout explicitily declaring war
Robert McNamara
Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, during the Vietnam War
Guns and Butter
a phrase that refers to the trade offs that nations face when deciding whether to produce more or less of consumer or military goods
freedom summer
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
selma
a town in central Alabama - in 1965 it was the center of a drive to register black voters
de jure
literally, "by law"; legally enforced practices, such as school segregation in the South before the 1960s
de facto
actually existing or in effect, although not legally required or sanctioned
affirmative action
programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities
flexible response
Policy of having the option of using either nuclear or conventional forces in responce to a threat
missile gap
the difference in how much the United States had compared to how much the Soviet Union had.
the green berets
Elite unit of the U.S. Army specializing in counterinsurgency. 1952. They were active in the Vietnam War, and they have been sent to U.S.-supported governments around the world to help combat guerrilla insurgencies.
alliance for progress
U.S. foreign aid to Latin American nations to develop their economies and counteract the appeal of communism
leonid brezhnev
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
tet offensive
1968; North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Eugene McCarthy
Liberal Democratic senator who announced that he would challenge Lyndon B Johnson for the presidential nomination. He determined that at least one Democrat enter the primaries on antiwar platform. He lost the election.
Robert Kennedy
Served as U.S. Attorney General from 1961-1964. He was also the younger brother of John F. Kennedy.
hubert humphrey
LBJ's vice president and McCarthy's opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. won nomination; not presidency.
george wallace
racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot
silent majority
Phrase used by President Nixon to describe people who suppourted the government's Vietnam policies but did not express their opinons publicly.
peace with honor
A phrase U.S. President Richard M. Nixon used in a speech , to describe the Paris Peace Accord to end the Vietnam War.