58 terms

APWH Unit 1 flashcards

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agricultural village
small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Started 10,000 years ago
Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
Sumer
An ancient region of southern Mesopotamia which rose around 3300 B.C. The first empire that ruled in Mesopotamia and is credited with inventing writing.
Sargon of Akkad
A conqueror from Akkad, north of Sumer, who took over all of Mesopotamia and created the world's first empire.
Gilgamesh
the epic story of the king, Gilgamesh, who searched for immortality/ a Sumerian legend
ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
pictograms
the earliest forms of writing in which pictures represent words or ideas
cuneiform
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
ideograms
A writting method used by the Chinese that represent ideas and concepts rather than specific prenunciations
Code of Hammurabi
the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to 1790 BCE, the earliest legal code known in its entirety
Shang Dynasty
Considered to be the first Dynasty in China; Famous for oracle bones, Anyang was the last capital, first form of Chinese writing appeared
Ma'at
the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head
pyramid
Huge, triangular shaped burial tombs of Egyptian pharaohs built during the Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. built Pyramids!
Middle Kingdom
2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
Aryans
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society. Established caste system in Indus valley
caste system
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Babylonians
an ancient empire of Mesopotamia in the Euphrates River valley. It flourished under Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar II but declined after 562 B.C. and fell to the Persians in 539.
Hittites
Indo-Europeans who settled in highlands of Anatolia in 2000 BC, first Indo-Europeans to make use of iron
Zhou Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Daoism;
oracle bones
one of the animal bones or tortoise shells used by ancient Chinese priests to communicate with the gods
sage kings
Legendary rulers of China c. 2800-c. 2200. Of the three sovereigns and five emperors based in the Huang He (Yellow River) region, Huang-tu (reigned c. 2697 BC) is credited with defeating the barbarians.
Anyang
the ancient Chinese capital of the Shang Dynasty; changed constantly
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
Nubia
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
Olmecs
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization, lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups. Famous for giant stone heads
Teotihuacan
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100 B.C.-750 A.D.). It's population was 150,000 in its peak in 600 CE; largest city in the Americas; remembered for giant Pyramid of the Sun
Maya
ancient people of the Yucatan peninsula who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture, pottery and astronomy
Moche
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples.
Chimu
Powerful Peruvian civilization based on conquest. Located in the region earlier dominated by Moche. Conquered by Inca in 1465.
Chavin
the first major South American civilization, which flourished in the highlands of what is now Peru from about 900 to 200 B.C.
Nok Culture
earliest known West African culture; consisted of farmers, first to smelt iron weapons and tools; traded; Settled in Jenne-Jenno near Niger river, also located on important trade routes
Zapotecs
Civilization that flourished in southern Mexico's Oaxaca Valley (c. 500 B.C.E. to C.E. 600)
hegemony
the consistent dominance of one state or ideology over others
republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
oligarch
one of several people who rule a country or empire together, sharing the power
Indo-European
People from around the the Black Sea and the Caspian sea; Between 2500 and 2000 BC, they migrated all over Eurasia; known as Hittites or Aryans, became ancestors of Romans and Greeks
Assyrians
known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.); expanded Egypt throught trade; adopted all pharaonic customs, including wearing the false beard
triumvirate
In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government
Julius Caesar
58 BC became governor and military commander of the Roman province of Gaul; part of the first Triumvirate; first emperor of Rome
satrapy
the twenty provinces that Darius divided the empire into; each province was ruled by a governor
Zoroastrianism
system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster; cosmic struggle over good and bad; influenced by Judaism and Christianity
Minoans
earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C.
Mycenaeans
an Indo-European people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.; conquered the Minoans in Crete in about 1400 B.C.
Polis
A city-state in ancient Greece
dominance
the state that exists when one person or group has power over another
Athens
the capital and largest city of Greece
Democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them; put into place by the Athenians of Greece
Solon
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt; citizens gained more power
hoplite
a heavily armed foot soldier of ancient Greece; moved around in groups called phalanxes
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta; 431-404 BC
Alexander the Great
successor of Philip of Macedon; 1st global empire, but no lasting bureaucracy; spread of Hellenism was his greatest achievement
Hellenistic
a word meaning to "imitate Greeks"; Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alex the Great
Cyrus the Great
managed to reunite Persian Empire into a powerful kingdom; began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world
Hyksos
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes; 1640 to 1570 B.C.
New Kingdom
the period of ancient Egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the Hyksos rulers, lasting from about1570 to 1075 B.C.; the time period when they reached their apex
Akhenaten
early ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with sun worship (died in 1358 BC); monotheism