How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

443 terms

Human Growth and Development

STUDY
PLAY
Guidelines offered by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2002) suggest that preschool children should engage in ________ of physical activity per day.
2 hours
As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they:
take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adult who is helping them.
Which of the following emotions are not in the same "category" as the other three?
fear
Which of the following is not one of the main precepts of a child-centered kindergarten
the implementation of monitored structure is crucial for development of self-regulation
Myelination occurs in the brain when:
nerve cells become insulated with a layer of fat.
Compared to lower socioeconomic status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to:
emphasize delaying gratification.
Overall, the effects of television on childrens developments are
some positive, some negative
In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to __________ and ________.
learn to identify others' emotional states; anticipate what will improve others' emotional states
Alicia and Jason are watching their two sons have a fight. One of the sons is almost 5 years old, and the other is just over 3 years old. According to research on parental response to sibling behaviors, which is the most likely response that Alicia and Jason will demonstrate?
They will do nothing at all
Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson's view of how guilt, initiative, and conscience operate during the early childhood period?
Children's consciences make them feel guilty about some of the initiatives that they take
Dante is encouraged by his parents to control himself and delay gratification. His parents give him some say in the rules of the house and are more likely to talk to him when he makes a mistake than to use physical discipline. His parents are most likely:
of a higher socioeconomic status
Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably a(n):
authoritative parent.
About ________ of parents who abuse their children were abused as children themselves.
one-third
Brendan is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still through dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan's parents to:
. be patient and recognize that Brendan is developing as a normal 3-year-old.
What changes were made to the Women, Infants, and Children program in 2009?
The program was adjusted to provide healthier foods to recipients.
Alicia is enrolled in a kindergarten where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. What approach is Alicia's kindergarten using?
Montessori
Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that:
children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.
When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting:
empathy
Sanjay and Ryan are 4-year-old friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that this activity will:
help the boys develop gross motor skills.
All of the following children are likely to be shorter than their peers, EXCEPT:
firstborn children
Guidelines offered by the National Association for Sports and Physical Education (2002) suggest that preschool childrenshould engage in _______of physical activity per day.
2 hours
As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they;
take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adault who is helping.
Which of the following emotions are not the same "category" as the other three?
Fear
Which of the following is not one of the main precepts of a child centered kindergarten?
The implamentation of montitored structure is crucial for development of self-regulation.
Myelination occurs in the brain when
nerve cells become insulated with a layer of fat
Compared to lower socioeconomincs status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to:
Emphasize delaying gratification
Overall, the effects of television on some children's development are:
some positive, some negative
In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to ___________and____________.
learn to identify others' emotional states; anticipate what will improve others' emotional states.
Alicia and jason are watching their two sons have a fight. One of the sons is almost 5 years old, and the other one is just over 3 years old. According to research on parental response to sibling behaviors, which is the most likelyresponse that Alicia and Jason will demonstrate?
They will do nothing at all.
Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson's view of how guilty, initiative, and conscience operate during the early childhood period?
Children's consciences make them feel guilty about some of the inititatives that they take
Dante is encouraged by his parents to control himself and delay gratification. His parents give him some say in the rules of the house and are more likely to talk to him when he makes a mistake than to use physical discipline. His parents are most likely:
of a higher socioeconomic status
Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independece while still placing appropriate boundries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is a(n):
authoritative parent
About _______of parents who abuse their children were abused as children themselves.
1/3
Brendan is 3 years old. His parents arre concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannnot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still through dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan's parents to:
be patient and recognize that Brendan is developing as a normal 3 year old.
What changes were made to the Women, Infant and Children program in 2009?
The program was adjusted to provide healthier foods to recipients.
Alicia is enrolled in a kindergarten where she spends much of her time in uninstructed activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. What approach is Alicia's kindergarten using?
Montessori
Jean piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational though, so named because he believed that:
children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought
When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting:
empathy
Sanjay and Ryan are 4-year-old friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activitiy often aggravates their parents, we know that this activity will:
help the boys develop gross motor skills.
All of the following children are likely to be shorter than their peers, EXCEPT:
firstborn children
Reseach conducted by Ruth Chao (2001, 2005, 2007) suggests that:
the high control of "authortatian" Asian parents is best conceptualized as "training" and is distinct from the domineering control that is generally associated with authoritarian style of parenting
A child is categorized as obese if his BMI is above the ______ percentile for their age group.
97th
Marella and ricardo have recently had a very serious fight. THey pushed and smacked each other, and both ended up with bruises and black eyes. Theier young son, Juan, winessed the entire event. WHich of the following forms of child maltreatment would best describe this situation?
Emotional Abuse
Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?
neglectful
A parent who denies, ignore, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be calles an:
emotional-dismissing parent
The theory of _______ refers to the idea that children can begin thinking about their own thought process.
Mind
Guidelines offered by the National Association for Sports and Physical Education (2002) suggest that preschool children should engage in ________of physical activity per day.
2 hours
According to Dunn (2007) there are three in=mportant aspects to sibling relationships. WHich of the following is not one of those points?
the age differences that exist in the relationship
When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance tot he level of skill of the student, it is called:
scaffolding
Lev Vygotsky differs from Jean Piaget in how he stresses the relative importancce of _________ for cognitive development.
social interaction
Approximately_________of lesbins are parents.
20%
Howie and his little sister, Stephie, are each given one large cookie. The mother breaks Stephie's cookie into four pieces to help her eat it more easily. Howie immediately begins to cry and says that it isn't fair for Stephie to get so many cookies when he only has one. Howie is showing a lack of
conservation
Which idea about divorce is best supported by available evidence?
A divorce may improve children's lives under some circumstances
Researches believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflectiveand less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is _______ and more attention to what is _______.
salient; relavent
What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child?
depression, deliquincy, and substance abuse
Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed:
fine motor skills
When looking at the heights and weights of preschool children, we know that:
there are ethnic differences
The social role theory of gender differences suggest that:
differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures
Ursula just brought home her report card. SHe earned C's and D's in all of her classes. Ursula's mom's first response was "Oh, you must be very disappointed." Then, the two of them sat down and tried to determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula's mom is most likely a(n):
authoritative parent
Tatia wants to know how good a tennis player she is. To determine this, she should play with:
her same-aged best friend
How does maternal employment outside of thehome affect children?
Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping.
Approximately _________of gay men are parents.
10%
Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?
neglectful
Five-year-old Marta draws a picture with pretty lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. "Its a boat on the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!" she explans to her teacher. Marta is showing clear evidensce of :
symbolic function
In explaining the ability to conserve, Rochel Gelman focuses on _________, whereas Jean Piaget focused on________.
attention; centration
During early childhood, on average girls are _______than boys.
slightly smaller
THere are approxiately ________Montessori schools in the United States today?
4000
In talking with Grandma on the phone, little Marcelo suddenly exclaims, "Oh, look at that pretty red bird!" WHen his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Marcelo says,"Out there, out there! RIght there, Grandma!" He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of:
egocentrism
According to Erik Erikson, what is the "great govenor" of initiative?
conscience
The support that parents give each other in raising children, including cooridination of rules and parenting efforts, is called:
coparenting
The drawings that 3-year-old Sally creates tend to be rather inventive and include scribbled designs that represent people, houses, cars,dogs, and so on. WHich Piagetian stage/substage of cognitive development is Sally in?
symbolic function substage
The stage of preoperational thought lasts from age ________years until age _______years
2; 7
At what age will children generally learn to adapt their style of language use to the listner?
4 to 5 years of age
Same-sex boy peer groups are charcaterized by all the following, EXCEPT:
cooperative play
In general, which of the following best describes birth-order effects?
They are limited in predicting behavior considing the many other influencing factors.
All of the following have been found to be advantages for the participants of the Perry Preschool program, except:
higher college graduation rates
Themost frequent criticism of early childhood intervention programs is that
many of them are of questionable quality
At what age will children generally learn to adapt their style of language use to the listner?
4 to 5 years of age
By the end of early childhood, boys have _______, whereas girls have _______..
more muscle; more fat.
Which of the following is NOT one of the stated goals of a developmentally appropriate practise?
better physical health
At what age do children show a preference to spend time with a same-sex playmate?
around 3 years old
Research linking corporal punishment and child behavior hasbeen associated with all of the following, EXCEPT:
higher levels of moral internalization
According to ErikErikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is
initiative versus guilt
Brendan s just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by imself if he uses both hands to hod on to a piece of furniture for support, but he can walk out into the middle of the room only if oneof his parents holds his hands. Which of the folllowing represents the lower limit of Brendan's zone of prximal development (ZPD) for walking
Brendan walking alone by holding on to a piece of furniture with one hand
Children's shows like Sesame Street are
good at modeling prosocial behaviors for children
Project _______is a program designed to break the cycle of poverty and oor education for children form economically disadvantaged backgrounds.
Head Start
A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if:
the task is more difficult that the child can do alone
WHich of these is TRUE of gender schema theory
This theory states how idea of gender appropriateness are developed.
According tot the textbook, many deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by
reducing poverty and improving nutrition, sanitation, education, and heath services
The term "child maltreatment" includes all but which f the following pssibilities?
tough love
An overwhelming worldwide health concern in the last decade has been death as a result of
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
What is morphology?
THe units of meaning involved in word formation
In a recent national survey of U.S. parents with 3- to 4-year old children, about _____________ reported that they frequently spanked their children
26%
Research linkin corporal punishment and child behavior has been associated with all of the following, EXCEPT
higher levels of moral internalization
In response to child misbehavior, most psychologists recommended
all of these
When Travis decided he wanted to catch a bird with a butterfly net, his parents encourages him to test out his idea. Because his parents supported his plan, he will probably grow up with
initiative
In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement
are irrelevant for the total amount
Children cannot conserve because they coannot yet
reverse
Young children tend to believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is referred to as belief in
immanent justice
If a mother wants to reduce the risk that her child will develop asthma, wheezing, and sleeping problems, she should
stop smoking
Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to playin groups that are made up of
the same sex
In which of the following countries are adults most likely to report that their parents used corporal punishment?
Canada
Researchers believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflective and less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is __________and more attention to what is _________.
salient; relevant
Maurcio has been having difficulties in his preschool classroom, and his teacher notes on his report card that she has noticied deficits in the area of planning and inhibition. What is the term that might encapsulate these mental skills?
executive function
For Jean Piaget, failing a conservation task indicates that the child is
demonstrating morality
Katrina becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of thier game, yelling, "You can't do that! You can't change the rules!" Katrina is exhibiting which of the following types of moral reasoning?
heteronomous morality
Which of the following is NOT a marked change in emotional development during early childhood?
Children can deceive others with their emotions
Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of
pretense/symbolic play
Which of the following best describes the realtion between centration and conservation?
Lack of conservation is reflected in centration
Which child will find the task of arranging objects in a precise pattern on a table most challenging?
3 year olds
Which type of classrooms has been found in research to enhance advanced writing skills, and improve self-regulatory and cognitive control skills in at-risk preschool children?
Tools of the Mind classrooms
Four-year-old Becky has just hit her sister again. What should becky's mom do? Most develomental psychologists would suggest
explain to Becky that "hitting hurts"; she is old enough to understand the consequences of he behavior.
Dr. Widaman is researching the cultural differences in school performances between Japanese and American children. He is comparing math scores between two groups of fifth graders. One of his groups is from Japan and the other group is from the United States. Dr Widaman is conductiong a ____________study?
cross-cultural
Which of the following is a correct staement regarding heredity-environment interaction?
Genetic loading and complex environments combine in development
Sequoia is pregnant and drinks deavily 3 to 4 days a week. Her unborn child is at risk for developing
a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
What soes Popeye have in common with a pregnant women?
They both benifit from eating spinach
Mary's parents fight quite often over money. In an attempt to stop the fighting and to save the family money, Mary has decided that she will not ask for anything for her birthday or any holiday. Mary's actions are being expressed in which of the Bronfenbrenner's system?
microsystem
The structure of Miss Darby's elementary classroom in New York City is based on the sociocultural cognitive theory of Lev Vygotsky. Her classroom would likely be characterized by all but which of the following?
She assigns much individual independent seatwork
As opposed to physicians, daulas tend to
spend more time with mothers and give more emotional support
During which period of development is the unborn baby MOST AT RISK of developing a structural defect because of the effects of a teratogen?
during the embryonic period
Professor Offord wants t assign subjects to experimental groups in such a way that each subject has an equal chance of being in any group. The best way to assign subjects is
randomly
This is a prenatal medical procedure where a samle of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders.
amniocentisis
Julia is currently 2 years old. She is learning how to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is "no." This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson's stage of
autonomy versus shame and doubt
After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the purpose and the results of the study. This mandated by what APA ethical concepts?
debriefing
One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that
Erik Erikson saw that development occured throughout the life span
Which of the following disorders is LEAST likely to happen to a mother 16 - 34 years old
Down Syndrome
Biology is to ______as environment is to ________.
nature ; nurture
In an experimental design, the dependent variable
can change only in response to a change in the independent
River has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over her eyelids, a thickened tongue, short limbs and retardation of motor and mental abilities. She is likely to have been born with
down syndrome
Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. B.F. Skinner would say that the best way to solve this problem is to
reward Nellie when she does not bang her head, and punish the head-banging behavior
Which of the following animals has the largest brain
Gorilla
Which of the following is more likely to occur in the child of a woman who smoked
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
A goodness of fit occurs when a child's temerament matches
environmental demands
The ________method of studying whether an infant can distinguish between two objects is done by measuring the length of time the infant looks at an object.
visual prefernce
Evidence that supports the idea that emotions have strong biological foundation includes all of the following EXCEPT
men and women share basic emotions
Infant's ability to regulate their emotions is positively correlated with
their age
Jean Piaget believed that children
actively construct their own cognitive as different cognitive abilities develop
Cases such as the "WildBoy Adveyron" and "Genie" cause us to wonder whether language is
a result more of heridity or of environment
A nerve cell in the brain is also called a
neuron
Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
THe hunger cry
Not until an infant s _______will his or her visual acuity approximate that of an adult with normal vision
1 year old
Which of the following occurs FIRST in development
reflexive smiling
Melissa is 2 weeks old. She sleeps about 16 hours a day. SHe
is typical of 2-week-old babies in her sleeping patterns
A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is called
language
According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is TRUE concerning children and autonomy?
Chidren feel excessive shame and doubt if consistantly overprotected or critisized
At what age does seperation protest peak?
13-15 months
Juanita notes that some days with her baby are harder than others. "When I'm rested, he laughs and plays, and then i fell even better. But when I'm tired, it seems that he is crankier than eve, and then I get even crankier, and it just gets worse!" THese differences are the result of
reciprocal socialization
Daniel and Guadalupe are angry with one another because of differences in their spending habits. Guadalupe snaps ar their daughter and sends her to her room even though the little girl is not misbehaving. According to Jay Belsky's description of family interactions, this situation is an example of
an inderect influence of the marital relationship on the child
Two month old Trey is crying loudly, His cry starts with a piercing shrill sound. Then there is a long period during which Trey holds his breath (turning red) and then the next crying sound comes out. This type of cry indicates that Trey is
in pain
Which of the following statements is TRUE
Extensive brain development continues after birth
Under which of these circumstances should a mother not breast-feed? AIDS, active tuberculosis, drugs
- All of the above are reasons for a mother to avoid breatfeeding
Tatsuya would like his daughter to grow up and develop to her full potential. He can do his part by
providing a stimulating home environment
According to Erik Erickson, which of the following is TRUE concerning children and autunomy?
Children feel excessive shame and doubt if consistently overprotected or critisized
Implicit memory is to ________, as explicit memory is to _______.
unconscious; conscious
According to some research, what might be more important than attachment style in predicting later social functioning?
consistency in caregiving
Stranger anxiety is negatively correlated with
proximity to mother
Jean Piaget believed that children
actively construct their own cognitive as different cognitive abilities develop
By a child's second birthday, his or her brain is approximately ___________of the weight of an adult's brain
75%
What types of behaviors in caregivers create a sense of sham and doubt in children
overprotectiveness and criticism
What is the correct sequence of language development
crying, cooing. babbling, gestures
Adjusting to new environmental demands is called
adaptation
In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with a(n) _______________temperament, whereas in China, a(n) ___________temperament is more highly valued.
active; inhibited
Dr. Dzindolet would like to know whether children born prematurely can tell the fifference between a face and a spiral. What method would best suit this experiment
visual preference method
Mandy watches as another little girl in the grocery store throws a screaming tantrum to get a toy. The next week at the mall, Mandy begins screaming and crying to get somecandy. Mandy is showing
deferred imitation
Janine impatiently grabs the door handle from her toddler daughter, quickly opens the door, and hurries the little girl through. Erik Erikson would say that Janine's daughter
well develop a sence of shame and doubt if this type of interaction occurs constitently
Which of the following in NOT and exampe of locomotive actively
A close bond between and infants and a caregiver
Monsena is an independent and adventurous chld who like to explore new places in her environment. However, her mother is overly controlling and rigid. Developmental psychologist would say that a discussion of this discrepancy concerns
goodness of fit
In the Strange Situation, Latoya basically ignored her mother, was not upset when she left the room, and did not seek-her out when shereturned. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Latoya as
insecure avoidant
Jean Piaget believed that children's thinking in one stage is ______ that in another stage.
qualitatively different from
"Want some ice cream," "fall down." and "mommy give drink" are all example of
telegraphic speech
Two-month-old Antonio is listening as his mother sings him a lillaby. He is making a gurgling soulnd and seems very happy. Antonio is
cooing
Which type of smiling occurs as a response to an external stimulus
social smiling
Two year old Anita has learned the word "dog" to identify the family pet Rover. Now Anita says the word "dog" when she sees any animal. Anita has____________these animals into her existing scheme
assimilated
A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli is called a(n)
reflexive smile
Baby Jane, 3 days old, is shown four drawings, One is a bright blue square, one is a white oval, one is a drawing of a face, and the last is a black and white bull's-eye. In view of Frantz's work, which will she probably prefer to look at?
the face
The __________has the most prolonged development of any region of the brain
prefrontal cortex of the frontal lobe
Shelly's parents are worried because their daughter is 5 moths old and can sit but not on her own. A psychologist friend tells them that
this is normal, because most children cannot sit on their own until around 6 to 7 months
Which of the following pairs is correct?
insecure avoidant infant and rejecting parenting
During which time period does the interaction with peers tend to increase the most dramatically?
between the ages of 18 and 24 months
Kevin loves to day,"Da, da, da, da" over and over again. This is an example of what type of communication?
babbling
An infant's color vision approximates that of an adult when she/he is
2 months old
Beth, who is 6 months old, had a 17 year old mother who isnot sure about how to interact with her. Beth's mother is inconsistant, sometimes responding to Beth's needs and sometimes mot responding to her needs. Beth mostlikely will be a(n) _________infant
insecure resistant
Javier his father are at the circus. A clown jumps in front of them, and Javier looks ar his father to see if he is afraid or laughing. Javier is using
social referencing
A loss of impairment of language ability caused by brain injury is called
aphasia
Fernando is a young child who has just recently begun to smile whenever he hears hismother's voice. Approximately how old is Fernando?
1 to 2 months
Jerome Kagan's views on attachment stress
the child's temperament and genitic characteristics
Schemes are
actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
In the Strange Situation, Cameron did not explore the playroom, clung to his mother when she was in the room, and was very upset when she left the room. When she returned, he appeared to be ambivalent - both wanting to be comforted by his mother, but pushing her away when she attempted to do so. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Cameron as
insecure resistant
According to John Bowlby, at what age do infants/children begin to take into consideration the feeling of other before acting?
24 months
How do child-care programs for children in low-income families compare with child care available to children in families of higher economic status?
A majority of child care in the first three years of life is of unacceptably low quality, but infants from low-income families have lower-quality child care than infants from high-income families.
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the hemisheric specialization of speech in the cerebral cortex of the brain
For most people, speech andgrammar are localized in the left hemisphere, and aspects of language like the use of metaphor and humor are localized in the right hemisphere
Miranda developed a basic sense of mistrust during infancy. Her parents bickered a lot and seperated, and Miranda was often lost in the shuffle. According to Erik Erikson, Miranda
may learn to trust other important people later in life, but they will need to demonstrate their trustworthiness
Which of the following is TRUE about a child's receptive vocabulary during the first 2 years of life
It exceeds the child's spoken vocabulary
What types of behaviors in caregivers create a sense of shame and doubt in children
overprotectiveness and criticism
Behaviorists believe that language is
a series of responses acquired through reinforcement
Which of the following statements about temoerament is TRUE
Temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior
Habituation ____________responsiveness to stimuli
decreases
Approximately what percentage of an infant's sleep is REM sleep
50%
Attachment theorists would agree on which of the following
Sensitive responsiveness on the part of caregivers will help infants develop secure attachments
What is the main problem with labeling children as difficult
it can become self-fulfilling prophecy
A child's expansive voabulary is directly correlated with his or her parents
verbal interactions with the child
"Baby-friendly" programs in impoverished countries encourage mothers to breast-feed their babies. One disadvantage of these programs, however, is that
The AIDS virus can be passed to the baby through the mother's milk
When put on the floor to play, baby Elaine cries as if she wants to be held. When her mother picks her up, though, Elaine pushes away with both arms and turns her head away. Mary Ainsworth would say that Elaine is
insecure resisitant
Guidelines offered by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2002) suggest that preschool children should engage in ________ of physical activity per day.
. 2 hours
As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they
. take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adult who is helping them.
Which of the following emotions are not in the same "category" as the other three?
fear
Which of the following is not one of the main precepts of a child-centered kindergarten?
the implementation of monitored structure is crucial for development of self-regulation
Compared to lower socioeconomic status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to:
emphasize delaying gratification
Overall, the effects of television on children's development are:
some positive, some negative
In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to __________ and ________.
learn to identify others' emotional states; anticipate what will improve others' emotional states
Alicia and Jason are watching their two sons have a fight. One of the sons is almost 5 years old, and the other is just over 3 years old. According to research on parental response to sibling behaviors, which is the most likely response that Alicia and Jason will demonstrate?
They will do nothing at all.
Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson's view of how guilt, initiative, and conscience operate during the early childhood period?
Children's consciences make them feel guilty about some of the initiatives that they take
Dante is encouraged by his parents to control himself and delay gratification. His parents give him some say in the rules of the house and are more likely to talk to him when he makes a mistake than to use physical discipline. His parents are most likely:
of a higher socioeconomic status
Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably a(n):
authoritative parent
About ________ of parents who abuse their children were abused as children themselves.
1/3
A child is categorized as obese if his or her BMI is above the ___ percentile for their age group.
93nd
Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?
neglectful
A parent who denies, ignores, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be called an:
emotion-dismissing parent
The theory of _______ refers to the idea that children can begin thinking about their own thought processes.
mind
According to Dunn (2007) there are three important aspects to sibling relationships. Which of the following is not one of those
the age differences that exist in the relationship
Which idea about divorce is best supported by available evidence?
a divorce may improve children's lives under some circumstances
What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child
depression, delinquency, and substance abuse
Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed:
fine motor skills
The social role theory of gender differences suggests that:
. gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures
The Food and Drug Administration recommends the following:
Pregnant women should consume no caffeine or consume it sparingly
The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the:
control group does not receive the independent variable.
Hannah and George disagree. Hannah argues that people within an ethnic group all share the same culture. George, by contrast, argues that people of the same ethnic group may or may not share the same culture. Who is right?
George, because diversity exists among people within an ethnic group.
With what sex-linked syndrome does a man have an extra X chromosome?
Klinefelter syndrome
Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books to read, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of correlation between heredity and environment?
passive genotype-environment correlation
The longitudinal method of research consists of:
studying the same individuals over a long period of time
Dan and Michelle have been having difficulty conceiving a child, so they've decided to try in-vitro fertilization to start a family. One of the risks of this assisted reproductive technology that they should know about is that:
25-30 percent of conceptions that occur using IVF result in multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets, etc.).
Jessica is a very attractive teenager with beautiful brown eyes and high cheekbones. She is constantly receiving compliments about her looks and being asked out on dates. Her genes have influenced her environment in the following manner:
There is evocative genotype-environment correlation between her genes and her environment.
Tingfeng We was a victim of child abuse as a young boy, but he did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
change
By the time a baby is born, (s)he will have approximately _________ neurons.
100 billion
Life expectancy refers to:
the average number of years a person can expect to live.
The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth is known as:
. involution
Research suggests that mothers who drink 200 milligrams or more of caffeine a day increase their risk of:
having a miscarriage
Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:
multidimensional
Evolutionary developmental psychology argues that many evolved psychological mechanisms are _________, which means that they apply only to a specific part of an individual's makeup.
domain-specific
Mary's parents fight quite often over money. In an attempt to stop the fighting and to save the family money, Mary decides that she will not ask for anything for her birthday or any holiday. Mary's actions are being expressed in which of Urie Bronfenbrenner's systems?
microsystem
Maternal stress is negatively correlated with a baby's:
. language development
The stage of industry versus inferiority in Erik Erikson's developmental theory occurs approximately during which period?
elementary school
The onset of puberty and the onset of menopause are examples of __________ age.
biological
Life expectancy increased during the 20th century because of improvements in:
sanitation.
nutrition.
medicine.
d. all of the above.
Which of the following methods is the best method to determine cause and effect?
experimental method
The developmental period that runs from approximately 40 years of age to about 60 years of age is:
middle adulthood
What does the traditional view of human development state about developmental change in adulthood?
There are few or no changes that occur during adulthood.
"Students at this age are full of surprises," comments the high school teacher. "They come in looking and acting like punk rockers one day, then like nuns and monks the next!" Erik Erikson would say these students are:
actively exploring different roles
In 1981 Steven Jay Gould concluded that in most domains of human functioning, biology allows a broad range of ________ possibilities
-. Cultural
The traditional and life-span perspectives are contrasting views of developmental change. According to the life-span perspective, when do developmental changes occur?
-. during childhood and adulthood
Gisela is having her first baby and has received a drug that will numb the entire lower area of her body during labor. Gisela has been given a(n):
Epideral block
Our relationships with others, changes in emotions, and changes in personality are all examples of __________ processes.
-Socioemotional
The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth is known as:
-. Involution
Which of the following is a weakness of the survey method of research?
- People are more likely to give socially acceptable or desirable answers
Dan and Michelle have been having difficulty conceiving a child, so they've decided to try in-vitro fertilization to start a family. One of the risks of this assisted reproductive technology that they should know about is that:
25-30 percent of conceptions that occur using IVF result in multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets, etc.).
Development in the young-old is characterized by considerable _________, but development in the oldest-old is characterized by __________
adaptability; frailty
Dr. Widaman is researching the cultural differences in school performance between Japanese and American children. He is comparing math scores between two groups of fifth graders. One of his groups is from Japan and the other group is from the United States. Dr. Widaman is conducting a __________ study.
cross-cultural
) Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books to read, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of correlation between heredity and environment?
. passive genotype-environment correlation
A group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine but do not join is the:
placenta
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Correlation does not equal causation
) Sheila is pregnant and has a family history of spina bifida. Which test would be used to determine whether her fetus has this defect?
- maternal blood screening
A complex molecule that has a double-helix shape and contains genetic information is:
DNA
Evolutionary developmental psychology argues that many evolved psychological mechanisms are _________, which means that they apply only to a specific part of an individual's makeup.
domain-specific
The third stage of childbirth consists of:
expulsion of placenta and umbilical cord
One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that:
. Erik Erikson saw that development occurred throughout the life span.
Tingfeng We was a victim of child abuse as a young boy, but he did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
change
According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?
observable actions
Mara is pregnant, and she recently watched a news program about the negative effects of mercury on a fetus. To alleviate her fears about mercury poisoning, Mara should limit eating:
fish
Maternal stress is negatively correlated with a baby's:
language development.
The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth is known as:
. involution.
Which of the following is a weakness of the survey method of research?
. People are more likely to give socially acceptable or desirable answers
Approximately 1 week after conception, the developing organism is called a(n):
blastocyst
Although it was originally thought that human beings have around _______ genes, recent research into the human genome suggests that we probably have more like _______ different genes.
100,000; 20,000
Which of the following is the period of development that occurs 2 to 8 weeks after conception?
embryonic
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this contextual environment consists of the influences exerted by the culture in which an individual lives.
macrosystem
Whereas Jean Piaget emphasized the biological processes of cognitive development, Lev Vygotsky emphasized the effects of __________ on development.
social interaction and culture
Which of the following is more likely to occur in the child of a woman who smokes?
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
In an experimental design, the dependent variable:
can change only in response to a change in the independent variable.
According to Jean Piaget, this developmental stage is marked by the development of logical, organized reasoning skills.
concrete operational
Juan-Carlos was born full term but was underweight for his gestational age. He would be considered:
small for date
Using a twin study, Professor Jones has just found that identical twins were more likely to both develop a conduct disorder than were fraternal twins. He has decided to announce to the world that, clearly, conduct disorder is determined by one's genes. His colleagues suggested, however, that he use caution when interpreting these findings because:
the environments of identical twins may be more similar than the environments of fraternal twins.
Sylvia has severe cystic acne and is taking Accutane, a drug prescribed by her doctor. She has just discovered that she is pregnant. Her doctor should tell her to:
stop taking Accutane immediately
The second stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory is:
autonomy versus shame and doubt
By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change is a good example of a:
normative age-graded influence on development
According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is TRUE concerning children and autonomy?
. Children feel excessive shame and doubt if consistently overprotected or criticized.
Infants begin to communicate at:
birth
The specialization of function in each of the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex in the brain is called:
lateralization.
Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will most likely:
touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose
Axon is to _________ as dendrite is to _________.
carrying signals away from the cell body; carrying signals to the cell body
Damon asks his son to look at a picture book and name the objects he sees. Damon is using __________ to help his son learn language.
labeling
Which of the following occurs FIRST in development?
reflexive smiling
Mandy watches as another little girl in the grocery store throws a screaming tantrum to get a toy. The next week at the mall, Mandy begins screaming and crying to get some candy. Mandy is showing:
deferred imitation.
Jerome Kagan's views on attachment stress:
the child's temperament and genetic characteristics
Adjusting to new environmental demands is called:
adaptation
Mandy is rocking her newborn baby to sleep. Which of the following would be the easiest for her child to hear?
slightly louder sounds
What makes one stage more advanced than another in Jean Piaget's theory?
the child's new way of understanding the world
During which time period does the interaction with peers tend to increase the most dramatically?
between the ages of 18 and 24 months
In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with a(n) ___________ temperament, whereas in China, a(n) _________ temperament is more highly valued.
active; inhibited
When put on the floor to play, baby Elaine cries as if she wants to be held. When her mother picks her up, though, Elaine pushes away with both arms and turns her head away. Mary Ainsworth would say that Elaine is:
insecure resistant.
At what age do children first show fear when a new person enters their environment?
by 6 months of age
Research about the ability of infants to distinguish human speech sounds indicates that:
infants gradually come to distinguish best the speech sounds of the language spoken around them.
People remember very little about what happened in the early years of their lives. This is called:
infantile amnesia
The Harry Harlow (1958) study concluded that contact comfort is more important for attachment than feeding. What evidence was used to support this conclusion?
Baby monkeys spent more time with cloth surrogate mothers than with wire surrogate mothers.
The Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment developed by Mary Ainsworth. It requires the infant to:
experience a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with the mother and a stranger.
Which of the following is NOT one of the types of play identified by Mildred Parten?
practice play
Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed:
fine motor skills.
Which of the following countries has the most favorable attitude toward corporal punishment?
United States
Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably a(n):
authoritative parent.
A young child might be heard saying, "That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down." The child's belief
animism.
As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they:
take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adult who is helping them.
Which child will find the task of arranging objects in a precise pattern on a table most challenging
a 3-year-old
Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky considered play to be valuable because:
. it advances the child's cognitive development
Social cognitive theory provides several important principles to help us understand moral behavior of children. Which one of the following is NOT one of those principles?
Punishment will always increase the modeling of moral behavior
Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational
children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought
Animism and egocentrism represent limitations in the preoperational child's thinking in that they indicate an inability to:
distinguish among different perspectives.
Lev Vygotsky believed that children who frequently use private speech are:
more socially competent
Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt are examples of:
. self-conscious emotions
Katrina becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of their game, yelling, "You can't do that! You can't change rules!" Katrina is exhibiting which of the following types of moral reasoning?
heteronomous morality
All of the following have been found to be advantages for the participants of the Perry Preschool program, except:
higher college graduation rates
By the end of early childhood, boys have _______, whereas girls have _______.
more muscle; more fat
Which statement best summarizes Daniel Berlyne's views about children's play?
. Children use play as a way to explore new things and as a way to satisfy their natural curiosity about the world.
In response to child misbehavior, most child psychologists recommend:
. reasoning with the child.
b. explaining the consequences of the child's actions for others.
c. removing the child from a setting that offers positive reinforcement.
d. all of these
A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an individual's perception is called a:
. schema
• Research into the effects of high levels of self-regulation have found that higher self-control in children between the ages of 4 and 10 years was related to lower levels of:
o -deviant behavior
• What is the best explanation for why minorities earn lower scores on IQ tests?
o -environment
• _______ is characterized by severe impairments in reading and spelling ability.
o -Dyslexia
• Self-esteem is to _______ self-evaluation as self-concept is to _______ self-evaluation
o -global; domain-specific
• Women tend to have about _______.
twice as much body fat as men
• The ability of a friendship to help a child see him/herself as competent, attractive, and worthwhile serves which of Gottman and Parker's functions of friendship?
ego support
• A second-grader is in what stage of cognitive development?
concrete operations
• Researchers have found that increased aerobic activity is associated with increases in which important cognitive activity in children?
o -planning
• How is Lawrence Kohlberg's theory culturally biased?
o -In some cultures, high levels of moral reasoning derive from different values than those that form the basis of Lawrence Kohlberg's claims.
• A dimension that distinguishes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from learning disability is:
activity level.
• Why are there more elementary and secondary school children living in stepfamilies than there are infants and preschool children?
It takes time to marry, have children, divorce, and remarry
• Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory and Howard Gardner's theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that:
intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities
• Cassandra is assertive and nurturant. She could be described as:
androgynous
• Jacob is a third-grader with a disability that had caused him to be separated from his peers during the school day. Just recently, Jacob has been moved to the regular third-grade classroom. What is this change called?
inclusion
• Females are often perceived as more emotionally expressive than males. This could be because females:
have more metabolic activity in the brain regions involved in emotional expression.
• What is the second most common cause of death for the child in middle childhood?
cancer
• Which of the following types of bullying is a girl most likely to be the victim of?
being the subject of sexual comments or gestures
• As Trey grows from early to middle childhood, the issues that he and his parents discuss and disagree about will begin to include:
o -household chores
• Recent trends suggest that the number of children diagnosed and treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has:
o -substantially increased
• Currently, researchers are considering all of the following as possible causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), EXCEPT:
child abuse
• On average, children gain ______ pounds per year during middle and late childhood
5 to 7
• Which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development often involves children adopting their parents' moral standards?
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
• Jermaine and Latoya want to help their daughter develop high self-esteem. What should they do?
teach her to face problems realistically and cope with them
• The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
divergent thinking
• Although Casey has scored poorly on standardized intelligence tests, can use ideas, implement them, and put them into practice. According to Sternberg, he has _______ intelligence.
o -practical
• Despite the fact that the material being covered in the current chapter of Michael's math class is quite difficult, he is very confident that he will be able to master the concepts if he works hard. Michael is demonstrating a high level of
self-efficacy
• __________ consist of deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information.
-Strategies
• Bellah sits in the back of the room, and very few of the children in class even know his name. Bellah's sociometric status is probably:
o -neglected
• Tavonte has been having serious problems in his math class. As hard as he and his teachers have tried, he is having major difficulty grasping the basic concepts of arithmetic functions. Which learning disorder might Tavonte be suffering with?
dyscalculia
• Which mind-set considers the possibility that qualities can change and improve with effort over time?
growth
• Research has found that between 70 and 80% of victims of bullying are victimized by:
a classmate
• Children with above-average intelligence and a superior talent for something are called:
-gifted
• Which of the following is an example of improving a child's self-esteem through achievement?
o -straightforwardly teaching a child a new skill
• Why are there different patterns of gender-related attitudes and behavior in different ethnic groups?
The status of females in relation to males is different in different ethnic groups
• Seven-year-old Milaka can use scissors to cut small paper dolls out of construction paper, something she could not do well at age 5. What best accounts for her improving dexterity?
increased myelination in the central nervous system
• Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of friendship that is proposed by Gottman and Parker?
healthy conflict
• Comparing the math abilities of males and females shows that
students in grades 2 through 11 had no significant differences in math scores
• Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. According to Gardner, Colin has _______ skills.
bodily-kinesthetic
• Amber is given a Stanford-Binet intelligence test. Her mental age is determined to be 12.8 and her chronological age is 11.0. Which of the following can be said about Amber?
Her IQ score is above the majority of the population
• By the time children get to middle and late childhood, they will spend approximately ___ of their time interacting with peers, as opposed to only 10% when they are 2 years of age.
-30
• Howard Gardner has developed _______ types of intelligence.
8
• Boys are much more likely than girls to be behaviorally disruptive in the classroom. This phenomenon may be explained by which of the following trends noted in your textbook?
boys usually show less self-regulation
boys usually show less self-regulation

• Is it possible to develop an intelligence test that is truly culturally fair?
No. There are too many different variations in test-takers' cultures to address them all
• When compared to the Binet intelligence test, the Wechsler test offers the advantage of:
o -both verbal and nonverbal scores
• Across childhood and adolescence, research suggests that:
girls engage in more prosocial behavior
• Which researcher is responsible for identifying the trend that intelligence scores are slowly increasing worldwide over time?
-James Flynn
• What does the research indicate about gender differences in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
Boys are more likely to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
• Which of the following types of bullying is a boy most likely to be the victim of?
o -being bullied over his looks or his speech
• At which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development does a person understand that values and laws are relative, and that standards may vary from one person to another?
social contract or utility and individual rights
• What is the best way to determine the relative influence of genetics in the development of a person's intelligence?
examining identical and fraternal twins
• Tadako's teachers have steadily been working on her self-esteem by frequently commenting on how nice it is to have Tadako as a member of their classes. Which strategy are these teachers engaging in?
emotional support and social approval
• Research reported by Baumeister and others in 2003 shows that individuals with high self-esteem:
can be prosocial or antisocial
Compared with novices, experts have:
better memory for their area of expertise
• Compared to girls, boys are __________ times more likely to be classified as having a learning disability.
3
• Research on the effects and consequences of bilingualism has shown that:
bilingualism may be related to poorer formal language proficiency
• Which of the following terms refers to domain-specific evaluations of the self?
self-concept
• Eight-year-old Joshua is obese. His excess weight puts him at risk for all of the following, EXCEPT:
anemia.
• Those individuals who have IQs of 55 to 70 are classified as _______ mentally retarded.
-mildly
• To understand how a family tree showing relationships among relatives works, children must be able to use the skill of:
classification.
• Julio understands that although he is older than his brother, he is younger than his sister. This is because Julio understands:
-transitivity
• If intelligence is assumed to be normally distributed, which of the following would you expect to find in the overall population?
o more people of moderate intelligence than of high or low intelligence
Jeff is independent, flexible, cheerful, friendly, assertive, tactful, comfortable with making decisions, sensitive to the feelings of others, and sympathetic. Jeff can best be described as:
androgynous
All of the following are effective ways to improve relationships among ethnically diverse students, EXCEPT:
segregating the classroom into groups
According to the text, the concept of intelligence can be defined as
all of these in combination
Marks: 1


Boys are much more likely than girls to be behaviorally disruptive in the classroom. This phenomenon may be explained by which of the following trends noted in your textbook?
boys usually show less self-regulation
Which mind-set considers the possibility that qualities can change and improve with effort over time?
growth
Which public service announcement would be most beneficial in preventing cultural-familial retardation?
Give your children an enriched environment
A person is arrested for stealing company documents and says, "Yes, I did steal the documents, and I am willing to go to jail for it. These documents prove that the company was engaging in a cover-up of the unsafe properties of its chemical. I think the public has a right to know about it." Lawrence Kohlberg would classify this person as using _______ morality.
postconventional
One research study found that ____ minutes of moderate and ____ minutes of vigorous physical activity per day can significantly help reduce the risk of a child becoming overweight.
45; 15
When asked why she participated with other students in a protest against treatment of women on her campus, Kai says that all humans have the fundamental right to be treated fairly, and that she is morally against the continuing discrimination against women. What is Kai's likely moral level according to Lawrence Kohlberg?
postconventional
Research on the effects and consequences of bilingualism has shown that:
bilingualism may be related to poorer formal language proficiency.
Which view of education sees the teacher as a monitor and guider who helps a child build his/her own understanding of the world?
constructivist approach
_______ is characterized by severe impairments in reading and spelling ability.
Dyslexia
Which of the following is most fatiguing to an elementary school child?
long periods of sitting
Which of the following is an example of bilingual education in a U.S. school?
Maria's first language is Spanish, so she has a teacher who speaks Spanish during some of her classes until Maria can learn more English
Which of the following terms refers to domain-specific evaluations of the self?
self-concept
Research into the effects of high levels of self-regulation have found that higher self-control in children between the ages of 4 and 10 years was related to lower levels of:
deviant behavior
In contrast to the study of information processing, the study of intelligence is more likely to involve the concept of:
individual differences
By the time children get to middle and late childhood, they will spend approximately ___ of their time interacting with peers, as opposed to only 10% when they are 2 years of age.
30
The neo-Piagetians seem to incorporate ideas from another view about cognitive development and learning. What other view is this?
information-processing approach to cognition
__________ consist of deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information.
Strategies
In which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg's scheme of moral development is a person most likely to imitate the moral standards of others?
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
Jean Piaget believed that children below the age of _______ years do not have concrete operational thought
7
Amber is given a Stanford-Binet intelligence test. Her mental age is determined to be 12.8 and her chronological age is 11.0. Which of the following can be said about Amber?
Her IQ score is above the majority of the population
To remember that Madison is the capital of Wisconsin, Greg thinks about a cupcake (because Dolly Madison is a cupcake company) with a slice of cheese on top (because Wisconsin is the cheese state). This is an example of using _______ to improve memory.
mental imagery
Maybe you've hear the song that goes, "Here's the story of a lovely lady who was bringing up three very lovely girls!" The song goes on to sing, "It's the story of a man named Brady who was living with three boys of his own." The fact that the Brady Bunch was about two single parents, each with their own children, who got married created a _________ family.
blended
Knowing about knowing is referred to as:
metacognition
Kang has been diagnosed with ADHD, and Kang recently started a common form of drug therapy. Kang is probably receiving a _____.
stimulant
Boys are more _______ aggressive, whereas girls can be more _______ aggressive.
physically; verbally
Research reported by Baumeister and others in 2003 shows that individuals with high self-esteem:
can be prosocial or antisocial.
During the elementary years, a child's self-understanding includes increasing reference to all but which of the following?
physical characteristics
Which public service announcement would be most beneficial in preventing cultural-familial retardation?
Give your children an enriched environment.
What is the best explanation for why minorities earn lower scores on IQ tests?
environment
Which of the following terms refers to domain-specific evaluations of the self?
self-concept
Ten-year-old Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erik Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of:
inferiority
All of the following are peer statuses, EXCEPT:
All of the following are peer statuses, EXCEPT:
In contrast to the study of information processing, the study of intelligence is more likely to involve the concept of:
individual differences
Which of the following is most fatiguing to an elementary school child?
long periods of sitting
Neuroimaging studies have found that a particular part of the brain does not peak in children with ADHD until about 10 years of age, where it peaks in children without that diagnosis by the age of 7. Which part of the brain is referred to in these studies?
the cerebral cortex
How would an 8-year-old child most likely describe herself?
"I am nice, and I have a friend named Julie."
In terms of self-understanding, children in late childhood are more likely than children in early childhood to:
compare themselves with their peers.
Though schools should be fully integrated in terms of the racial and ethnic characteristics of their students, research finds that almost one-third of all African-American and Latino students attend schools in which _____ percent or more of their classmates are from minority groups.
90
Across childhood and adolescence, research suggests that:
girls engage in more prosocial behavior
In a famous study, Chi (1978) found that 10-year-old children who knew a lot about chess remembered chessboard positions better than adults who did not play much chess. Evidently, these 10-year-old chess experts could do this because they:
had more prior knowledge about chess than the adults.
Despite the fact that the material being covered in the current chapter of Michael's math class is quite difficult, he is very confident that he will be able to master the concepts if he works hard. Michael is demonstrating a high level of
self-efficacy
A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into a long, thin shape; the other remains in its original ball. The child is then asked if there is more clay in the ball or in the long, thin piece of clay. If the child answers the problem correctly, the child most likely is in which stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory?
concrete operational stage
A person is arrested for stealing company documents and says, "Yes, I did steal the documents, and I am willing to go to jail for it. These documents prove that the company was engaging in a cover-up of the unsafe properties of its chemical. I think the public has a right to know about it." Lawrence Kohlberg would classify this person as using _______ morality.
postconventional
All of the following are changes in emotional development during middle and late childhood, EXCEPT:
improvement in the ability to interpret subtle social cues
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of friendship that is proposed by Gottman and Parker?
healthy conflict
The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
divergent thinking
Which of the following types of bullying is a boy most likely to be the victim of?
being bullied over his looks or his speech
Which of the following is an example of bilingual education in a U.S. school?
Maria's first language is Spanish, so she has a teacher who speaks Spanish during some of her classes until Maria can learn more English.
Organic retardation is caused by:
physical damage to brain tissues.
Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner's theories of intelligence are alike in that both:
hypothesize several different types of intelligence
Tiesha's behavior is controlled by external rewards and punishments reflecting which level of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
preconventional reasoning
What does the research indicate about gender differences in learning disabilities?
Boys are more likely to have a learning disability
Which researcher is responsible for identifying the trend that intelligence scores are slowly increasing worldwide over time?
James Flynn
Which of the following is an example of improving a child's self-esteem through achievement?
straightforwardly teaching a child a new skill
Neuroimaging studies have found that a particular part of the brain does not peak in children with ADHD until about 10 years of age, where it peaks in children without that diagnosis by the age of 7. Which part of the brain is referred to in these studies?
the cerebral cortex
Is it possible to develop an intelligence test that is truly culturally fair?
No. There are too many different variations in test-takers' cultures to address them all