Terms in this set (34)
the study of animal behavior in relation to the natural environment
-the ecology and evolution of animal behavior
the study of how behavior is modified by experience through learning and memory
-What are the mechanisms underlying behavior?
-how is the nervous system wired?
-What stimuli elict a bahvior
-how do hormonal levels influence the development and expression of the behavior?
-What is the purpose or function of a behavior?
-How does the behavior affect the probability of survival and/or reproduction of an individual?
-What was the original step in the historical process that led to the existence of behavior?
-How has the behavior evolved and how has it changed over evolutionary time?
Simple experiments answer complex questions
the case of counting ants
-behaviors that appear in fully functional form the first time they are performed
-FIXED ACTION PATTERNS
-eq-web building in spiders, egg-rolling in geese, pecking response in gull chicks
-Involve the durable modification of behavior in response to experience
Where does behavior come from?
-In reality most behaviors fall on a continuum between innate and learned -Even instinctive behaviors are influenced by environment in sense that their expression is a product of genotype +development
Two effects testosterone has on behavior of male rate?
Organizational effect and activational effect
primary sex determining signal stems from the testis determining factor(TDF)
affects development of brain when the animal is very young
high concentration of testosterone triggers sexual behavior
Female rat sexual behavior
in absence of TDF ovaries develop and testes regress
-femal fetus develops under the influence of estrogens
-brain develops estrogen receptors
-maturing brain develops mechanisms for mating and maternal behavior
Fetal environment influences aggressive behavior in adult male rat
-rats are multiparous
-gender of neighboring fetuses influence uterine environment
2M males in graph
male fetus develops between two brothers and has low estradiol
-genetically identical 2M males much more aggressive than 0M males
0M males in graph
male fetus develops between two sisters and has high estradiol
many studies in lab
-rear individuals in isolation to see if they still exhibit the behavior
-natural experiments the galah parrot and pink cackatoo
Galah parrot and the pink cockatoo
- both nest in tree holes in Australia
-sometimes larger cockatoos eject adult galahs from nest after galahs have laid eggs
-cockatoos become foster parents of galah chicks
-provides natural experiment to investigate instinctive versus learned behaviors
-galah chicks learn contal call of cockatoos
-by contrast galah chicks give galah alarm an begging calls despite having been completely isolated from other galahs
-indicating the behavior is learned since adapted from adoptive parents
Twin concordance studies
If genes influence probability of exhibiting a trait, identical twin pairs will be highly concordant
-comparison of degree of concordance in identical and fraternal twins provides estimate of extent to which genes influence trait expression
no more similiar genetically than non-twin siblings
-less concordant-more pairs in which one twin exhibits the trait and other does not
presence of a given trait in both members of a pair of twins
Human twin studies
-cognitive and personality traits influences by both genes and the environment
-heritability of behavioral traits similar to that of cardiovascular rick factors
-more complex behaviors influences by many genes
-insert genetically engineered mutant version of gene
-silence gene by RNA interference (RNAi) or similar method
-examine phenotypic consequences of genetic manipulation
Splicing of fruitless gene specifies male courtship in behavior in Drosophila
-requires products of fruitless (fru) gene
-gene is spliced differently in males and females
-alleles of fru constructed so male splicing pattern occurs in both sexes
-male splicing is essential for male courtship behavior and sexual orientation
-male splicing also sufficient to generate male behavior in otherwise normal females
- Splicing of a single neuronal gene thus specifies essentially all aspects of a complex innate behavior
What factors favor instinctive (innate) over learned behaviors?
-short generation time and absence of parental care(eg spiders)
-expression of behvior is appropriate in almost every context
-Expression of behavior has to be right the first time (alarm calls, predator avoidance in kangaroo rats)
How are fixed action patters elicited?
Releaser or sign stimulus
Releaser or sign stimulus
red underside (on fish) acts as releaser of male aggressive behavior in sticklebacks
-no red elicits no response
-any models with red underside elicit strong aggressive behavior
red spot in gulls
only a red spot on an elongate rod is needed to elicit pecking response in chicks
cockatoos are brood parasites on several bird species including reed warbler
-female cockatoo lays eggs in nest of host species
-cockatoo chick hatches first and literally kicks out eggs of host species
-huge, gaping beak of cuckoo acts as super-releaser of feeling behavior in reed warbler adoptive parent
FAPs in humans?
smiling, flirtatious behavior and "eyebrow flash"
the durable modification of behavior in response to experience
studied by pavlov
animals earn to associate involuntary activity with stimulus
-repeated association of stimulus with reward or punishment causes stimulus alone to elicit response
-turn on light
, give dog meat powder, dog salivates
-eventually light alone will make dog salivate
-occur in a rnage of humans to roundworms
animals learn to associate voluntary behavior with a stimulus
-trial and error learning
Contains one or more
-levers which animal can press
-places for delivery of reinforcement stimuli, such as food or water
-presses on levers detected and recorded and delivery reinforcement set up to operate automatically
-also possible to deliver punishment such as electric shock through floor chamber
-form of learning in which individuals exposed to certain key stimuli very early in development form a lifelong association with the object
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