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WSET L3 - Winemaking
Terms in this set (44)
Waxy surface covering grapes skins that contains yeast which can be used to ferment the wine.
Also called protective Winemaking. All efforts made to keep oxygen contact to an absolute minimum: sulfur, grapes picked at night, in winery, airtight equipment used along with co2 or nitrogen. Some argue that these wines are bland.
Protects from oxygen and also acts as an antiseptic, protecting from bad yeast and bacteria. Good yeast which ferment the wine are more resistant to so2, so can handle the lower levels that bad bacteria can't. So2 becomes bound in the wine and loses the ability to further protect wine from oxidation, so so2 levels must be continually monitored.
228L oak barrel
225L oak barrel
Rectified Concentrated Grape Must
Yeast species responsible for majority of wine fermentations, high tolerance to alcohol and SO2.
Temp at which ferment will not start
Below 5 degrees c
Temp at which ferment will stop as too hot
Over 35 degrees c
Main alcohol in wine
Benefits of lower ferment temp
Retain volatile compounds that often have floral character. Can enclourage fruity characters in white wines.
Three types of clarification
Sedimentation (usually racking but centrifuge is modern machine that can do)
This is done before surface - usually to get gross lees. Solids become trapped in filter.
Usually done after depth, as it is finer and can clog easily. Resemble a fine sieve. Sterile filter is one of these, and is when pore size of filter is small enough to pick up yeast and bacteria.
Tartaric acid forms tartrates - wine diamonds. Cold stabilization is how to prevent this if long maturation prior to bottling is not appropriate - wine cooled to below 0 so crystals form, which are then filtered away.
Many yeasts and bacteria that can spoil wine. Wines that have not undergone MLF, or that have low to med alc, low acidity and a little RS are particularly at risk. SO2 and sterile filtering is how to prevent
Care must be taken to avoid contact with oxygen-SO2 is main way. Bottles flushed w co2 or nitrogen is another.
Optimum temp for white wine ferments and why
12 -22C. Lower than that can result in pear drop aromas and fail to capture varietal characters. Higher can develop additional characters and complexity but lose varietal fruit.
Aromatic white varieties
Sav Blanc, Riesling, Muscat, Gewurz, Torrontés
Bordeaux. Blended with Semillon, adds to body and richness.
Worldwide regions for Sav Blanc
Margaret River (often blended with Semillon)
Pessac-Léognan (also often blended w Semillon)
Riesling in the vineyard
Tolerant of cold winters. Buds late, ripens mid-late
World regions for Riesling
Australia - Clare & Eden
Finger Lakes AVA - NY, USA
Large old oak barrels sometimes used for Riesling in Alsace, enhancing the texture and adding complexity
Chardonnay at harvest
In warm climates can lose acidity quickly so timing of harvest is critical
World regions for Chardonnay
High-quality Chardonnay is made in almost every Winemaking country.
FBurgundy: Chablis, Côte d'Or, Mâconnais
USA: Russian River Valley & Carneros
Australia: Adelaide Hills, Geelong, Mornington Peninsula
NZ: Gisborne & Marlborough
Casablanca Valley, Chile.
Pinot Gris/Grigio in the vineyard
Early budding and ripening. Warm climates can develop too high sugar and too low acid
World regions for Pinot Gris/Grigio
Alto Adige, Trentimo, Fruili-Venezia Giulia (made from same clone as Germany and France, smaller berries better quality) as opposed to Venetian plain is high volume, cheap, from clone known for pale skin and large fleshy pulp.
Red wine fermentation temps
20 - 32 degrees C. Yeast will die above 35. Need higher temps than whites to extract colour, flavor and tannin.
Cap management techniques
Rack and Return- fermenting juice drained and into another vessel, then pumped back over the cap. Very extractive. Good way to dissipate hear.
Rotate Fermenters - fermentation takes place in rotating horizontal tanks.
Alc percentage when grapes in carbonic laceration split and release juice
Cab Sav characters
Thick skinned, late ripening
Bordeaux. Cab Sav produces wines with grippy tannins in their youth along with cedar, black currant leaf. Tannins soften with age and becomes
More expressive. Often blended with Merlot which ripens earlier and gives juicy plum flavors and smoother texture
Cab Sav regions
Coonawarra & Margaret River
Can Sav in wonery
Destemmed (stems herbaceous and astringent). 26-30degrees. High temps and rigorous cap management generally avoided towards end of ferment to avoid high tannins. Post-ferment maceration may be used to soften tannins and encourage gentle extraction. Oak aging common with new oak, small barrels, up to 3 or 4 years, with 12-18 months being common.
Ripens earlier than Cab Sav. Dominant in Saint-Émilion and Pomerol. Two styles: late pick to maximize colour, fruit intentlsity, tannins. This is new world style. Old world style, rarely found outside of Bordeaux is earlier pick to have fresh red fruit, med alcohol and body, vegetal, Leafy aromas.
Merlot in winery
Similar techniques to Cab Sav. No whole bunch. Prefermentation maceration, new oak for 12-18 months. Skins more supple than Cab so less extraction necessary.
Early budding and early ripening.
Pinot Noir regions
Burgundy - Côte d'Or
Los Carneros & Sonoma, USA
Martinborough, Marlborough & Central
Yards, Mornington, Tasmania
Walker Bay, South Africa
Casablanca Valley, Chile
Small grapes with thick dark skins. Do not ripen in very cool climates. Depending on climate and Winemaking, can range from med body with pepper and fresh black fruit to full bodied with very ripe black fruit and liquorice.
Late-ripening - needs warm/hot climate. High tolerance to drought. Sweet and thin-skinned, give wines that are high in alc, low in acid, full-bodied with soft tannins and red fruit.
Typically destemmed but sometimes not. Gentle cap management. Usually drained from skins after maceration. Large old oak usually used as toasty new oak can overwhelm fruit.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
WSET L3 - Alsace
WSET L3 General
WSET L3 - Vineyard
WSET L3 - Bordeaux
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