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Micro Final Review
Terms in this set (52)
The worldwide spread of ________ resulted in pandemic between 1918 and 1919 that claimed 20-150million lives
Influenza Virus A
Presence of an LPS layer indicates which type of bacteria
Travelers to Bangladesh are advised to wash hands because of this _________
Cause of 250,000 cases of gastroenteritis
Babies are born with an immune system that's not fully functional. They receive antibodies from mom in-utero. This is called:
Passive, natural immunity
Which represents increasing microbial diversity?
Population, Guild, Community
The most abundant phototrophic organism in ocean, accounts for over 50% of oxygen is the cyanobacteria: ______
total number of different species present
proportion of species in an ecosystem
-metabolically related microbial populations
-habitat shared by guild
-provides the nutrients as well as conditions for growth
What is the most abundant marine heterotroph?
What is an organism that grows best at low nutrient concentrations?
What are the most abundant microorganisms in the ocean?
What is it called when the host provides a benefit to the microorganism but, there is no benefit or harm to the host?
What is it called when both the host and the microorganism benefit?
Staphylococcus and Streptococci mainly infect which part of the human body?
Upper respiratory tract
The bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, is the cause of what?
Tooth decay (cavities)
An infection that does not cause disease in a normal setting but can cause disease when introduced to an unprotected site or a compromised host immune system is called an:
The entry of a pathogen/parasite into cells/body is called:
The damage or loss of tissue/organ function due to an infection is called
Non-normal flora organisms that are able to infect and cause disease are called:
The ability of an organism to cause disease is called:
The number if organisms to colonize 50% of hosts is called:
Infectious Dose (ID50)
The measure of severity of disease caused by organisms is called:
The number of organisms it takes to kill 50% of hosts is called the:
Lethal Dose (LD50)
Path of Infection
The route of dissemination is referred to as the:
Factors that allow the pathogen to cause disease in the host
The decrease or loss of virulence-usually due to mutation or deletion of virulence gene
Proteins released by bacteria that damage the host
Bacterial products or components of cell walls that are created by bacteria and illicit an immune response
LOW endotoxin levels lead to a ______ immune response
HIGH endotoxin levels lead to a ______ response that overpowers the host
The body's nonspecific reaction to destroy invading cells
The body's reaction to specific antigens and it retains a "memory" of these antigens
Cells found in the tissue, spleen, lymph nodes, and other organs that initiate the inflammatory response
Cells that initiate and modulate the T cell response
Adaptive immunity that involves the production of antibody proteins is
Adaptive immunity that involves T cells that bind different antigens, kill pathogens and control antibody production
The primary lymphoid organs, the sites where lymphocytes grow and mature are:
Bone marrow and thymus
Which lymphocytes interact with peptide antigens presented by MHC1 on Antigen presenting cells, leading to foreign cell destruction?
Cytolytic T cells (as CD8 + T cell)
Which lymphocytes interact with peptide antigens presented by MHC II on antigen presenting cells, leading to release of cytokines and stimulating antibody production?
Helper T cells (as CD4 + T cell)
Long-term infections where the pathogen lives in "balance" with the host, taking what it needs for existence and causing minimal harm to host
Infections that arise suddenly and are characterized by rapid and dramatic onset of disease
Disease that is constantly present in a population, usually at low incidence
Occurrence of disease in a larger number of people in a population than would typically be expected in that population
An epidemic disease that is widespread, usually distributed worldwide
The number of new cases of a disease in a given period of time
The total number of new and existing cases of a disease in a population
The resistance of a group to infection due to immunity of a high population
Sites in which infectious agents remain viable and from which individuals can become infected
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