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BIOL 600 FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (44)
What are the three main theories for the evolution of altruism in animal societies?
- kin selection
- byproduct mutualism
How is altruism expressed, versus personal fitness, in byproduct mutualism?
Altruism increases personal fitness better than solitary foraging or defecting.
What are two main requirements of reciprocity theory?
- individual phenotypes
- past altruistic acts bestowed on them by others
Why must juvenile vampire bats engage in reciprocity? How do they do it and what factors influence who gives and receives the altruism?
Because about 33% fail to feed and they can only go without food for 3 days.
- They regurgitate part of their meal for group members.
- They give only to those who failed to feed and has given them blood before
Be able to explain each component of Hamilton's rule, and solve the equation using specific examples. Remember that "b" and "c" are relative changes in offspring (for the recipient and altruist respectively) under the "altruism" versus "no altruism" scenarios.
Understand that "r" represents the probability that two individuals share the exact same copy of an allele. How does this value change with siblings, half-siblings, and first cousins in diploid individuals?
half siblings- 25%
first cousins - 12.5%
What is meant by a "green beard" gene and why is it such a successful strategy? Explain the evidence for such genes in social amoebae and fire ants.
green beard gene is a distinct genetic trait. It is successful strategy in receiving altruistic benefits for possessing the trait.
- in social amoebae they only promote cell adhesion for like genotypes.
- in fire ants the Gp-9 locus influence whether they adopts or kill a new queen.
Give some examples of cooperatively breeding birds mentioned in lecture - how does helping effort change with changes in kinship to the chicks?
- Florida scrub jay, Seychelles warbler, white front bee eater.
- helping effort decreases with he relatedness to chicks decreases.
How is cannibalism behavior influenced by kinship in tiger salamander larvae?
Increases with the decrease of kinship
How does kin recognition differ from indiscriminate altruism via philopatry? Why to both examples work with kin selection theory? Give examples in Belding's ground squirrels in the context of data presented in lecture.
-kin recognition is active assortive interactions such as searching for kin for altruism, phenotypes that match, or early imprinting.
-philopatry is when there is limited dispersal so there is indiscriminate altruism between neighbors since neighbors happen to be kin.
- Aggression are shown more in siblings/ non siblings reared away than siblings/non siblings reared together. fights encountered in half sisters more than full sibs. Assistance occurred more in full siblings. Investigation of another ground squirrel increases with the decrease of kin ship
How does group size affect survival and time spent guarding in groups of meerkats?
As group size increases the time spent guarding group decreases.
What is meant by "reproductive skew" in societies with joint-nesting queens?
reproductive skews mean the distribution of reproduction across members of a group. a dominant and subordinate female joint nesting groups.
What are two types of incentives that a dominant female gives to a subordinate in the theory of reproductive skew? How does the subordinate share of reproduction change with kinship between females? Did this match the data for paper wasps?
- stay incentive: subordinates get a share of reproduction for not leaving
- peace incentive: reduce aggression toward dominants for a share reproduction.
- The share of the reproduction for subordinates increase with the decrease of kinship between females.
Three predictions of concessions model of reproductive skew. Evidence in wasps, chimpanzees, and scrub wrens.
for both wasps and scrub wrens it showed that the increase in kinship there was a decrease in the reproductive rights of subordinates. In chimps it is the opposite
What are the "r" values between mother-offspring, sister-sisters, and sister- brothers, in the Hymenoptera. Do these change under polyandry vs. monogamy?
- mother- offspring: 50%
- sister-sisters- 75%
- sister- brothers- 25%
- brother- sister- 50%
yes under monogamy sisters are related 75%
under polyandry half sisters related- 0.25
Define Eusociality (four main criteria). Which animal groups have it?
- Communal offspring care
- sterile castes (non reproducing adults)
- division of labor
- overlap of generations ( workers raise younger sibs)
Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Homoptera, Coleoptera, Thysanoptera
snapping shrimps and naked mole rats
Understand why monogamy is a prerequisite for evolution of eusociality based on a kin selection argument for sterile workers.
monogamy is a prerequisites for evolution of eusociality based on kin because individuals will be related more to their sisters than to their offsprings.
Under monogamy, is there queen worker conflict over sex ratios of brood? Why?
yes queen sex ratios is 1:1 since she is related to both sexes 50%. Workers prefer females 3:1 since they are 75% related to their sisters and only 25% to their brothers.
What is the evidence for workers eliminating eggs laid by other workers in honey bees? How does effective policing influence amount of "cheating" by workers (in terms of egg laying) across wasp species?
- A graph showed that workers removed more eggs and faster laid by workers compared to that of the queens eggs.
The more policing there is the less cheating there is among workers.
How do the "tasks" of honey bee workers change as they age? How does the number of foragers affect the average age at which nursing bees become worker bees?
task of honey bee workers change when they become older from nursing young larvae to foragers. As the number of foragers increase the age of the bees promotion increases as well, so they are being promoted when they are older than usual.
What is the "round dance" and when is it performed by honey bees?
round dance is when the food source is close to the hive <50m
Understand each component of the waggle dance and how it communicates the angle of food source relative to nest entrance, the distance, and the quality
angle from top of hive- angle from the sun
duration of waggle- how far the source is
duration of dance- the quality of the source
Be able to predict the angle of a waggle dance in the nest, relative to the top of the hive based on the position of food in the environment relative to the sun.
top of the hive represents sun
Explain Karl von Frisch's experiments with angle and distance using trained bees
found that recruits followed foragers to food source using angle and distance from waggle dance
How did Gould's experiment, blocking ocelli in a waggle dancer, show that bees observing a waggle dance are indeed responding directly to angle of the dance?
blocking ocelli of waggle dancer, it can not detect light, but uses the top of the hive as indication of sun. Other bees can see artificial light and thinks thats the sun therefore flying in direction of waggle dancer using the artificial light as source and not the top of hive.
What is a "stop signal" and when is it performed in relation to competition for the communicated food source? Why is it so important for a hive to function?
the bee headbutts the waggler. It is performed when another scout sees it has been occupied by other bees or that the patch is no longer there. It is important for the hive to function so that they can exert their time and energy to a spot that has resources.
How does the frequency of great tit songs vary in forests versus cities?
In forests frequency is lower than in city.
In sparrows, do males end up matching the songs of their neighbors??
How does the begging call of cuckoo chicks elicit high feeding rates from host?
Its frequency matches the frequency of a brood of warbler chicks.
How does a great tit adjust its call when warning neighbors versus mobbing a predator?
warning neighbors are at a higher frequency so that only neighbors can here where as mobbing a predator is at a lower frequency.
How do chick begging calls in warblers differ in tree versus ground nesting birds? Using playbacks how did researchers prove that this affects predation rates?
tree nesting birds have begging calls at a lower frequency than ground nesting birds. Using playbacks researchers found that playing a tree nesting begging call gained more predation then the ground nesting begging call.
What are the costs of sending mating signals in male crickets, in terms of probability of attracting parasitic flies?
A longer, higher chirp rate and amplitude will attract more females but also a larger amount of female flies as well compared to short lower chirp rate and amplitude.
What is meant by an "honest signal" in terms of male condition and/or physiology?
-honest signal means signal production is condition dependent (only good condition)
- signal production is contained by physical features
- sender is related to receiver
How does body size constrain calling frequency in frogs, birds, and red deer?
The bigger then body the lower the frequency of the callings
Explain the European toad experiment and how call frequency affected the perception of a male rival size by a competitor
A small defender with high frequency had more attacks than a small defender with low frequency. In large defenders high frequency had more attacks then low frequency although it was significanty lower than that of small defenders.
How do male house finches get their bright coloration and how does this translate into their ability to give offspring care and pass on good genes to their sons?
male house finches gets their bright coloration from fruits since it can't be synthesized. Brighter the plumage means better genes and parental care.
How do display rates in male damselfish relate to male quality and offspring care?
More dips in display in male damselfish means higher mating success and offspring care.
What is the "ultimatum game" and what is the most common offer among human societies? Are societies more or less likely to reject offers that are asymmetric?
The ultimatum game is that a person propose a split with person #2. #2 can reject or accept if reject everyone loses share. Societies are more likely to accept asymmetric offers. however person #1 offer more than what would be expected to please the views of other people.
What is the general idea of group selection and what are some criticisms?
-general idea of group selection is idea that natural selection sometimes acts on whole groups of organisms, favoring some groups over others.
- criticism: low extinction rates of groups make it weak
high levels of migration between groups
traits favored under group level selection may be exploited by cheaters who favor individual selection
How does trait group selection work, in terms of alleles being selected in a group context, versus mixing in the population?
How do humans differ from other apes in terms of the orientation of birthing?
The back of the head is in a occiput anterior position where baby is facing moms spine occiput anterior instead of occiput posterior
Explain the grandmother hypothesis for the evolution of delayed senescence post- menopause in human females. Explain the evidence in Finnish populations.
The grandmother hypothesis is that a grandmother presents will delay sentence of post menopause in human females by assisting with the care of the children and increasing woman recovery from births.
- Finnish populations evidence that women reproduce at a younger age, more, with survival of children, and lifetime reproductive success higher than those without their mothers.
What two other mammals may exhibit menopause based on this same hypothesis?
elephants and orca whales.
What is meant by "evolutionary psychology" and how does it differ from "evolutionary anthropology" ? What are the risks of this approach?
evolutionary psychology is the study of the adaptive significance of behavior.
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