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autonomic nervous system
involuntary, controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands, has 2 subdivisions sympathetic and parasympathetic
parasympathetic nervous system
maintains homeostasis, conserves body energy, more active under ordinary, restful situations
neuroglia or glial cells
fill spaces, support neurons, and insulate neurons, can reproduce, and act as phagocytes
nerve cell or neuron
functional unit of the nervous system, specialized to react to physical and chemical changes, functions to conduct nerve impulses to other neurons and to cells outside the nervous system
outermost membrane of schwann cells, thin coating, helps some peripheral nerves repair themselves after injury
Na+ and K+
needed for nerve impulses, at rest Na are more concentrated on the outside of the membrane and K is more concentrated on the inside
K leaves the cell, electrical charge returns to its resting state, and Na and K return to original postitions on either side of the membrane
rapid, simple, automatic response, specific- a given stimulus always produces the same response
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