Core Subjects 4-8 (211) Social Studies
Terms in this set (193)
Currently, there are three federally recognized Native American tribes residing in Texas.
2. Kickapoo Traditional
3. The Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo
Spain ruled and explored over Texas for ___________ Years.
Spanish reign in Texas can be divided into the following:
2. cultural absorption, Texas Indians acquiring culture directly from the Spaniards.
3. Defensive Occupation
Spanish influence in Texas rangers from ___________ to 1821.
Spanish Texas was largely an effort by the Spanish Crown to keep its assets in the New World secure from the ___________ ind Louisiana.
The secondary center of Spanish colonial power in Texas was ___________ ___________, present day Goliad.
In the 19th Century, Spain and the United States came close to war due to navigation rights of the ___________ River, and the expansion of Anglo-Americans settlements in the Spanish ___________.
Napoleon's purchase and subsequent sale of ___________ territory to the US left Spain divided and vulnerable.
The oldest and largest of colonial Texas communities was ___________ ___________ de Bexar.
Third center of colonial spanish power in Texas was at ___________, in far northeast Texas, near the Louisiana border.
The history of Texas as part of the US began in ___________, but settlement of the region dates back to around ___________BC.
Texas has been part of 6 independent countries, including: ___________, France, Mexico, the Republic of ___________, the Confederacy, and the ___________ ___________
The Compromise of _____ ceded large parts of Texas territory to the federal government due to the US assumption of $10 of Texas debt.
Anthony Lucas drilled the first major oil well at _____ on January 1901, near Beaumont, Texas. This resulted into an Oil Boom that led to economic expansion after the Civil War.
The last battle off the Civil War, the Battle of _____ Ranch, was fought in Texas on May 12, 1865.
Native Americans of the _____ Coast lived in densely forested areas, survived mainly on salmon, built houses out of wood and canoes out of cedar. Social Hierarchy.
Native Americans of the _____ Area were either nomadic or sedentary. Nomadic tribes hunted buffalo and traded with sedentary tribes for corn, squash, and beans. Governed by a chief.
Native Americans of the _____ area spent much of their time trying to eke out a living. Borrowed tepee architecture from Plains Indians, though some of their houses were covered in bark.
The _____ Woodlands extended from Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean. Dome-Shaped wigwams or houses. Hunted with Bow and Arrow or blowgun. Highly detailed pottery.
Native Americans in modern day _____ hunted caribou, relied on snowshoes, and had a shaman.
Native Americans in the _____ area hunted with the atlatl, lived in pit dwellings, and include Pueblo indians.
John "Rip" _____ was a Texas Rangers legend.
Louis T Wigfall, Confederate General/Texas Senator secured the surrender of Fort _____ during the Civil War.
On February 28th, _____, US Congress annexed the Republic of Texas as a state.
Texas seceded from the US on February 1st, _____ to join the Confederacy.
The Battle of _____ convinced the French the Americans could actually win the Revolutionary War.
Were the French motivated to help the Americans during the Revolutionary War out of goodwill?
No, they wanted to reclaim the land they'd lost during the French and Indian War.
_____ was the first state to abolish slavery
After the revolutionary war, colonists were able to move West across the _____ mountains and many states moved to separate _____ and state.
The Articles of Confederation were ineffective because they gave too much power to the _____ and too little to a central _____
Jefferson's Land Ordinance of 1785 helped generate money for the new American government.
The _____ Ordinance of 1787 would become the model for how all future states would be formed.
On September 17th, _____ the Constitution was presented to the people of the states.
How many parts does our Constitution have?
Can Congress override the President?
Yes, with a 2/3 vote
The Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson's greatest presidential moment, destroyed the _____ party.
The Treaty of _____ gave the US East Florida for 5M
The passage of the Indian Resettlement Act of _____ was the governments first attempt to force migration
The Texas Revolution occurred in _____, 15 years after Mexico gained it's independence from Spain
Before the Civil War, abolitionists offered the _____ Proviso, which declared that none of the US territories should have slaves.
Northern States resisted fugitive slave laws by passing personal liberty initiatives and supporting the _____ _____
The Civil War was fought mostly over the controversy of _____
The Civil War also sprang because the South felt under-represented in Congress.
Lee's greatest victory of the Civil War was at the BAttle of _____ in VA
Most historians believe that the Battle of _____ was the turning point of the Civil War
Native Americans were doomed by their inferior _____, the destruction of their _____ supply by whites, and by _____ systems.
The Dawes Act of 1887 asserted that Indians needed to be _____ into American society.
The _____ Amendment gave women the right to vote.
The involvement of women in WWI increased support for women's suffrage.
The US Constitution was influenced by sections of the _____ _____, which was written in 1215.
The US Constitution was also influenced by the _____ Bill of Rights (1689)
The Mayflower _____ was written in 1620 by the first New England settlers. This document also influenced the US Constitution.
The Treaty of Paris ended the _____ War.
The Indian _____ Act of 1830 gave the American government the power to form treaties with Native Americans.
President Van Buren sent troops to enforce the New Echota treaty, a forced relocation of the Cherokee tribes in Georgia. 4,000 Cherokee's died on what became known as the _____ of _____
Trail of Tears
What was the Dred Scott decision?
The Supreme Court ruled that Scott, as a slave, was not a US citizen. He was not free, and couldn't sue.
_______ used the first known writing system.
_______ was united by the Nile River.
The Indus Valley, or _______, was widely dispersed over 400,000 square miles. No known national government, unified culture of luxury and refinement.
_______ had a series of short-term empires that failed because of their oppression of subject peoples.
_______ started as a group of city-states united by Alexander the Great and joined to create an empire that stretched from the Indus River to Egypt and the Mediterranean Coast.
_______ was an Italian city-state that grew into an empire extending from the British Isles across Europe to the Middle East.
_______ became the foundation of the Western world's culture, language, and laws.
The _______ had the world's longest lasting and continuous empires.
His Presidency is considered the beginning of the modern political system and the start of the Democratic Party.
_______ was the period between 1865 and 1877 during which the South was under strict control of the US government.
The _______ Amendment made slavery illegal.
The _______ Amendment made all persons born or naturalized in the country US citizens.
The _______ Amendment made it illegal to deny anyone voting rights based on race.
What are the three parts of the US Constitution?
7 articles outlining the powers/responsibilities of the three branches of government
A section of Amendments
What year did the Pilgrims arrive and sign the Mayflower Compact?
The Industrial Revolution began in England in 1733 with the construction of the first _______ mill. It continued by booming steel industries, using _______ instead of wood, and then the _______ engine came next.
The Industrial Revolution changed society from agraian to _______, allowed businesses to abuse women and children through 14 hour work days in terrible conditions, and brought crowded/unsaitary conditions to cities.
Who negotiated an alliance with France during the American Revolution?
In what war did the Native Americans side with the British and burn down the White House?
War of 1812
What treaty ended the War of 1812 and established peach with Great Britain?
Treaty of Ghent
What did the Monroe Doctrine warn against?
European colonization of Central and South America. Consequence would be US military intervention, and in turn the US would leave European colonies alone.
She was a women's rights and abolition activist who lectured for suffrage, property/wage rights, and labor organizations for women.
Susan B. Anthony
He was a leader of the common school movement that made public education a right of all Americans.
Who was the president of the Conferdacy?
The Transcontinental Railroad was built from 1865 to 18____ By 1910 there were 240,000 miles of trakcs.
By the 1880's, ____ ____ were being fenced in and plowed for farming and pastures.
Millions of farmers moved into the high plains after the 1880's, establishing the "____ ____", which was the major wheat growing area of the country.
The Great Depression was fueled by the following factors:
1) Foreign farmers began growing their own crops again
2) Increased buying on ____
3) bank war debts
4) A growing gap between ____ and ____
5) A belief that the stock market would always go ____
Rich and Poor
The Stock Market Crash of ____ destroyed fortunes, and sent the country into a downward economic spiral.
By 1933, 14 Million were unemployed and the national income had dropped by ____
What event marked the end of US neutrality in WWII?
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
The US Played a major role in WWII as?
The great manufacturers of goods and munitions for the allied powers.
Very little of American life was focused on the WWII effort besides women working in factories and men entering the war.
All facets of American life were focused on the war effort - rationing, metal collections, buying war bonds.
The amped up production during the WWII efforts in America put an end to the economic depression
Suffrage in the US went through the following stages:
Early 1800's: States eliminated ____ ownership and ____payment qualifications
By 1810: No more ____ tests for voting
Reconstruction Era: What Three Amendments passed?
By 1920: 19th Amendment was passed. Which prohibited discrimination based on ____
1964: 23rd Amendment passed, which eliminated the ____ tax.
Voting Rights Act of 1964 prohibited ____ tests.
1971: 26th Amendment set the minimum voting age to ____
Property and Tax
13th, 14th, 15th
Movement of Human Populations
Prior to the theory of plate tectonics, it was generally accepted that continental drift was caused by the continents floating on the Earth's oceans.
It was not until the study of the ____-Atlantic Ridge and magnetic striping in the 1960's that plate tectonics became accepted as a theory.
1)____ is a commodity that is useful/necessary to sustain life or industries of global societies.
2) ____ Resources are Earth materials that can be used to further those ends.
3) ____ resource is one that may be replenished after use/long term availability.
4) ____ resource is one that is permanently depleted after it's use.
5) Recovery of a ____ resource is feasible, given current technological capabilities, though not exceptionally profitable.
6) Recovery of a ____ resource is not profitable. It would cost more in energy and money to recover such a resource.
7) The ____ of a resource is the estimated amount of that resource that is recoverable.
The following geological processes produce natural resources:
1) Igneous Processes
2) Contact Metamorphism
3) Sedimentation of mineral particles
4) Weathering Processes
Affect of Human Activity on Erosion Rates
1) ____ activity has the largest effect on soil stability. Clearing of trees and other vegetation makes land susceptible to run-off.
2) ____ may adversely affect the resistance of Earth to erosion.
3) Animal ____ and urban development can lead to increases in the levels of eroding materials.
4) Increased ____ pollution can speed rock decay
With increased erosion, Earth materials are more likely to shift through mass movements, changing natural ____ and placing humans and other organisms in danger.
Wherever humans go, they never make changes to their surroundings.
The natural greenhouse effect of our atmosphere keeps temperatures on the planet ____ degrees higher than they would be without the effect.
What two man made factors work together to increase the levels of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere?
1) Increased burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal
2) ____ which results in a decrease of photosynthesis-practicing plants.
The average temperature of Earth's surface has gone up by ____ Celsius in the last 100 years
Ocean Pollution not only affects oceanic ecosystems, but out of ocean ecosystems as well.
The energy of ____ and the strength of the material of which a coastline is composed are the main factors in the rate of wave erosion.
Wave Erosion creates the following landforms:
1) Sea Cliff
2) Wave-Cut Platforms
4) Marine-Built Terraces
A geologic ____ is a fracture in Earth's surface created by movement of the crust.
Three Types of Geologic Faults
1) ____ fault - hanging wall moves downward relative to footwall.
2) ____ fault - hanging wall moves upwards relative to footwall
3) ____-slip fault - The dip is virtually nonexistent, and the footwall moves vertically left or right
1) ____ weathering: causes disintegration of rocks and minerals Rocks break apart but retain chemical compositions. Occurs in cool climates
2) ____ weather: Rocks experience chemical change due to organic acids Occurs in hot, humid climates.
3) ____ occurs simultaneously with weathering. This term refers to transportation of Earth materials by wind, water, gravity, and living organisms.
A cliff or a canyon is an example of an erosion landform.
____ is defined as "average weather" in a particular area on Earth
It is generally accepted that the climate of an area does not vary during a human life span.
The burning of ____ can contribute to global warming and acid rain.
____ is the art and science of map making, which eventually grew into the field of geography
Two Steps to Modern Map Making
1) A survey
2) Compile the information and computer-draft a map
Types of Maps
1) ____ maps serve as the starting point for more complex maps.
2) ____ maps show data on a theme, such as population or wildlife.
3) ____ map shows natural features such as mountains/rivers.
4) ____ map show relief and configuration of a landscape such as hills/valleys/roads.
5) ____ map is used for routes of a subway system.
6) ____ map uses lines for state, county, and country boundaries
Mountains are formed by the movement of geological ____.
When plates collide, the crust is pushed up to form mountains. This is called ____
Three Types of Orogeny
1) Continental Plates colliding, causes folded mountains.
2) Oceanic plate subducting a Continental Plate causes strong horizontal forces resulting in mountains like the Andes.
3) Oceanic plate subducting another oceaninc plate causes volancos.
Applying geography to interpret the present and plans for the future involve:
1) Recycling programs
2) Loss of agricultural land to further urban expansion
3) Air and water pollution
5) Ease of Transport and Communication
Voting citizens do not need to have an understanding of geographical and environmental connections to make responsible decisions?
The organization of settlements/cities/farms are ____ in nature.
The Five Themes of Geography
1) Location. Relative and Aboslute
2) Place. Includes physical and human characteristics
3) Human-environmental action
4) Movement - trade
5) Regions. Formal/Functional/Vernacular
The science that considers the relationship between geological structures and surface landscape features is called ____. Ex: Corals building coral reef or plants contributing to salt marsh development.
Oceans cover nearly ____% of the world's surface
The US population doubled between ____ and 1890.
This increase in population led to exploited immigrant workers, who started labor protests in the 1870's. Knights of Labor was formed in 1878, which reached 700,000 members. Eventually, this organization was replaced by the ____ ____ of Labor.
American Federation of Labor was headed by ____ Gompers
____ is any legal tender with which debts may be settled.
Currency's major use is to facilitate the exchange of ____ and ____ in the marketplace.
Goods and Services
____ ____ of countries are the institutions that control currency/money supply through monetary and fiscal policy.
Although instituted by Congress, the Federal Reserve is completely independent of political controls.
____ ____ were originally created to stabalize currencies to prevent governments from creating money whenever they please.
What has overtaken the Gold Standard in modern countries?
Systems giving central banks of countries the power to create money and manipulate monetary policy for the good of the economy.
____ reduces the buying power of money, and if uncontrolled can threaten the entire economy.
Rampant inflation in Germany during the 1930's helped bring the Nazi's to power.
____ is the lifeblood of market transactions, serving as a measure of value, a medium of exchange, and as an accounting convention.
Historically, commodities like crops and ____ were the first forms of money.
When money became accepted as a representation of commodities, the ____ system was revolutionized.
Acceptance of modern money depends on trust in the issuing institution or nation.
Most markets operate under a ____ payment system.
Substitutes for Money
Public/Private Promissory Notes
Other Forms of Money (Historical Timeline)
Minted coins of precious metals
Paper Notes issued/guaranteed by governments
Wealth has an absolute and rigid definition.
False - It's subjective and relative
Economic Growth never includes the rapid depletion of natural resources.
Areas of Economic Policy
1) Fiscal Policy
2) Policies on Taxation
3) Government Spending
5) Interest Rates
6) International Trade
7) Banking System
What theory of value states that the value of anything was completely subjective and up to the consumer?
Subjective Theory of Value
How is per capita income calculated?
Total of all monies earned by residents of an area divided by the number of inhabitants of the region.
The aggregate of all monies is called Total ____ Income.
The previous two terms determine relative econoic health of an area.
Perfect Competition exists in the real world.
When the tax base is a good, service, or property, the tax is called an ____ ____ tax.
____ ____ Tax, common in Western Europe add a "hidden" tax to goods and services at each stage of the manufacturing process.
An ____ tax is a tax levied on a tax base of a determined figure.
____ is the driving force of capitalism.
Economics could rightfully be called the study of ____
Factors of Economic Production
Supply and Demand regularly reach equilibrium in real economic systems
Factors of the Great Depression
1) Disparity between rich and middle class. The top 5% of the nation controlled 1/3 of the wealth.
2) Decreased demand of automobile and housing markets
3) Agricultural depression brought on by post-war surpluses
4) Not much international trade, due to Hoover's high tariffs
5) Overproduction on assembly lines
6) Persistent/Unsound stock market speculation
7) Two hurricanes
After Black Thursday/Black Tuesday, the stock market lost ____% of it's value. Or 30 Billion.
Hoover's First Strategy for Combating Great Depression
1) Balance the budget
2) Reduce Federal Spending
3) Keep US on Gold Standard
4) Wait it out
Hoover's 2nd Strategies
1) Work-relief programs
2) Reconstruction Finance Group
3) Resisted giving direct aid to citizens in form of welfare
The Hoover ____ is a famous example of a Great Depression work-relief program.
Inflation occurs because an economy is growing too slowly.
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
1) Widespread Education
2) Wider franchise
3) Development of mass communication in politics
Negative economic aspects of abundant natural resources
1) Environmental Degredation
3) Social Tension
____ is the study of the buying choices people make, the production of goods and services, and how our markt system works.
In a ____ economy, the government controls what/how much is produced, the methods of production, and distribution of goods/services.
Characteristics of a Market Economy
1) Economic Freedom
2) Economic Incentives
4) Private Ownership
5) Limited Government
____ has become the strongest factor in determining per capita income for many countries.
This court case overturned most state laws prohibiting abortion.
Roe vs. Wade
This court case determined separate educational facilities are unequal.
Brown vs. Board of Education
This case, later overturned by Brown vs. Board of Education, established the legality of separate but equal.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Laws can originate in either the House of ______ or the Senate.
Regarding the passage of laws - if a proposed law makes it all the way to the President for approval and the President vetos it, then there is no chance of the law passing.
False. If the President veto's a proposed law, Congress can still pass the law with a 2/3 vote.
The system in the Constitution is known as a ______ system, in which powers are shared between the federal and state governments.
Restrictions of State Governments:
1) Anything that the federal gvt is restricted from
2) Forming alliances/confederations
3) Declaring war and maintaining navies
4) Treaties with other countries
5) Making Money
6) Taxes on goods to/from other states
7) Contract voidance
8) Taking away an individual's rights without due process
Powers denied to the Federal Governments
1) Breaking or abusing the Bill of Rights
2) Placing taxes on goods to/from states
3) Using funds from the Treasure without appropriations bill
4) Altering state lines
All state constitutions contain
1) A section outlining how governments should be organized
2) People's Rights
3) States ultimate authority rests with the people
In a state government, the governor serves as the head of the ______ branch.
Over ______ % of court cases in the US are decided in state and local courtrooms.
Today, the majority of the world's populations reside in ______ democracies, including constitutional monarchies.
______ regimes enforce strong, even oppressive, measures against individuals that fall within their sphere of influence. Arise when government presumes it knows what is right for a nation and enforces it.
______ is a form of authoritarianism in which the government regulates ever aspect of public and private conduct. Scary!
______ is a form of authoritarianism governed by a single political party that upholds the principles of Marxism-Leninism. Goal is to dissolve the state into a classless society.
______ is an authoritarian ideology that defined that form of rule in Italy fro 1922 to 1943 under Mussolini. Efforts to exert state control over all aspects of life, hold nation and political party above individual, hold the state as supreme.
______, or rule by a single individual, is one of the oldest forms of government and is an autocratic system in which a monarch serves as Head of State. Monarch holds office for life.
______, or rule by the people, is a government in which power is vested in the people and in which policy decisions are made by the majority in an election that is open to all citizens.
A ______ is a state in which supreme power rests with citizens who vote to elect representatives to be responsible to them.
The groundwork for modern constitutionalism arose from the ideas of Aristotle and Plato - translated to Christianity by Thomas Aquinas.
Principles of Government Outlined in the US Constitution
2) Popular Sovereignty
3) Separation of Powers
4) Judicial Review
5) Checks and Balances
6) Limited Government
What are the two factions that debate on how federalism should be carried out?
State's Rights and Nationalists
Civil ______ are the role of the state in providing equal rights and opportunities to individuals in that state.
Civil ______ are those rights that belong to individuals that connot be infringed upon by the government.
Contributions of Ancient Greece
4) Historical Writing