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An organism's ability to mentally anticipate that a US will follow a CS is most likely tob. highlightedb. a(n) ________ perspective.

a. evolutionary
b. behaviorist
c. cognitive
d. neuroscience

c. cognitive

Punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant responding.

a. increases; decreases
b. decreases; increases
c. decreases; decreases
d. has no effect on; has no effect on

b. decreases; increases

If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.

a. partial
b. primary
c. conditioned
d. delayed

c. conditioned

A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terrora. the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates

a. an unconditioned response.
b. operant conditioning.
c. latent learning.
d. generalization.

d. generalization

Conditioning seldom occurs when a ________ comes after a(n) _____.

a. CS; US
b. UR; CS
c. secondary reinforcer; operant behavior
d. negative reinforcer; operant behavior

a. CS; US

John B. Watson believed that psychology should be. the science of

a. observable behavior.
b. cognitive processes.
c. genetic predispositions.
d. all of these factors.

a. observable behavior

Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates

a. the law of effect.
b. spontaneous recovery.
c. respondent behavior.
d. associative learning.

d. associative learning

If you have a "frightening experience" immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear mayb. aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates

a. generalization.
b. spontaneous recovery.
c. classical conditioning.
d. the law of effect.

c. classical conditioning

You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented withouta. air puff is a

a. UR.
b. US.
c. CR.
d. CS.

c. CR

8. A word of praise is to a soothing back rub as ________ is to ________.

a. delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer
b. operant conditioning; classical conditioning
c. partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
d. conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer

d. conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer

If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably developa. aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by

a. intrinsic motivation.
b. biological predispositions.
c. conditioned reinforcers.
d. the law of effect.

b. biological predispositions

Research participants formed more gut-level liking for Pokmon characters associated with positive rather than negative images. This best illustrates the impact of

a. classical conditioning.
b. the law of effect.
c. negative reinforcers.
d. intrinsic motivation.

a. classical conditioning

Children who are promised a payoff for playing witha. interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. This provides evidence for the role of ________ in operant behavior.

a. spontaneous recovery
b. primary reinforcers
c. cognitive processes
d. negative reinforcers

c. cognitive processes

Mentally rehearsing the glossary definitions of unfamiliar terms in order to remember them for a later test illustrates

a. the peg-word system.
b. procedural memory.
c. effortful processing.
d. echoic memory.

c. effortful processing

The semantic processing of the words in a short poem illustrates

a. procedural memory.
b. the peg-word system.
c. the serial position effect.
d. deep processing.

d. deep processing

Which of the following is central to the processing of procedural memories?

a. hippocampus
b. hypothalamus
c. basal ganglia
d. amygdala

c. basal ganglia

Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory?

a. priming
b. semantic encoding
c. proactive interference
d. long-term potentiation

d. long-term potentiation

After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Arotza cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember events before the accident. Arotza's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates

a. retroactive interference.
b. the serial position effect.
c. anterograde amnesia.
d. iconic memory.

c. anterograde amnesia

The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls positive life experiences. This best illustrates that emotional states can become

a. retrieval cues.
b. short-term memories.
c. sensory memories.
d. flashbulb memories.

a. retrieval cues

During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates

a. the spacing effect.
b. proactive interference.
c. source amnesia.
d. retroactive interference.

b. proactive interference

Researchers now recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory and refer to it as ________ memory.
a. sensory
b. working
c. flashbulb
d. implicit

b. working

Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?
a. a mental image of one's best friend
b. the date of one's own birth
c. a conditioned fear of guns
d. one's own name

a. a mental image of one's best friend

Which of the following questions about the word depressed would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you had seen the word on this quiz?
a. How well does the word describe you?
b. Does the word consist of ten letters?
c. Is the word written in capital letters?
d. Does the word rhyme with obsessed?

a. how well does the word describe you

Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster the second time even though they can't recall having seen the story before. They have most likely suffered damage to the
a. hippocampus.
b. cerebellum.
c. basal ganglia.
d. amygdala.

a. hippocampus

Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they first learned of the death of a close friend or family member. This best illustrates ________ memory.
a. iconic
b. flashbulb
c. implicit
d. state-dependent

b. flashbulb

Whenever Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie's experience best illustrates
a. repression.
b. mood-congruent memory.
c. retroactive interference.
d. the misinformation effect.

b. mood-congruent memory

Although Ron typically smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, he recalls smoking little more than a pack a day. This poor memory best illustrates
a. the misinformation effect.
b. motivated forgetting.
c. the self-reference effect.
d. the serial position effect.

b. motivated forgetting

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