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cell membrane

thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell

cell wall

strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria


one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope


organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy


short hairlike projection similar to a flagellum; produces movement in many cells

contractile vacuoles

cavity in the cytoplasm of some protists that collects water and discharges it from the cell


material inside the cell membrane --not including the nucleus


directions for inhertance carried by a molecule

Endoplasmic reticulum

internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified


tail like appendage used for locomotion of certain cells and or unicircular organism

Golgi Apparatus

stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum


cell organelle filled with enyzmes need to break down certain materials in the cells


cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in foods into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use

nuclear envelope

layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of the cells

nuclear pores

pores which allows materials to move in and out of the cell nucleus


small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins


small particles in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and proteins

rough ER

portion of the ER involved in the synthesis of proteins

smooth ER

contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks, including the synthesis of membrane lipids, and the detoxification of drugs


cell organelle that stores materials such as waters, salts, proteins, and carboydrates


granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

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