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Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy 10th Edition - Corey - Tammy_Waz
Columbus State University counseling
Terms in this set (161)
Synthesizing the approaches covered in the text:
often requires many years of study, training, and practical counseling experience.
The author makes a case for
initially getting an overview of the major theoretical orientations, and then delving more deeply into each approach.
Which one of the following is not considered an experiential and relationship-oriented therapy?
family systems therapy
Which one of the following is not associated with the cognitive-behavioral action-oriented therapies?
Which of the following statements about theories or models of counseling/ psychotherapy is true?
There is a clear place for theoretical pluralism in our society.
Effective psychotherapy is a practice in which:
the client and therapist collaborate in co-constructing solutions to problems.
Francesca, a cognitive behavioral therapist, likes to give homework assignments to her clients. What might her rationale be for doing this?
Homework can be a vehicle for assisting her clients in putting into action what they are learning in therapy.
What type of factors oftentimes limit our freedom of choice?
all of these (social biological environmental cultural)
A comprehensive approach to counseling:
goes beyond focusing on our internal dynamics and addresses those environmental and systemic realties that influence us
Culturally encapsulated counselors would be most likely to:
depend entirely on their own internalized value assumptions about what is good for people
In the text, all of the following are listed as characteristics of the counselor as a therapeutic person except:
counselors no longer have to cope with personal problems
You are working with an ethnic minority client who is silent during the initial phase of counselling. This silence is probably best interpreted as:
A response consistent with his or her cultural context
Confidentiality must be breached and information must be reported by practitioners when
clients pose a danger to others; a child under the age of 16 is the victim of incest, rape, or child abuse; an older adult is being abused; the therapist determines that the client needs immediate, involuntary hospitalization.
An authentic counsellor is best described as:
being willing to shed stereotyped roles and being a real person.
Many ethical codes state that dual or multiple relationships
should be avoided whenever possible.
Which of the following statements is not true about guidelines for ethical practice in counseling and psychotherapy?
Practitioners are free to formulate any ethics they choose.
Which humanistic approach emphasizes the basic attitudes of the therapist as the core of the therapeutic process?
Adler believed that human behaviour is:
motivated by social urges and purposeful and goal-directed.
The purpose of examining a client's family constellation is:
To get a picture of the individual's early social world.
"Fictional finalism" is an Adlerian term meaning:
an imagined central goal that guides our behaviour.
The existential philosophy of therapy includes the notion(s) that:
people are thrust into a meaningless and absurd world and that they are basically alone and people must create their own meanings through their choices
A comprehensive approach to counseling :
goes beyond focusing on our internal dynamics and addresses those environmental and systemic realities that influence us.
Culturally encapsulated counselors would be most likely to
Depend entirely on the own internalized value assumptions about what is good for people.
Forming personal and social relationships with clients is:
often an example of a dual relationship
Sex between a client and therapist can be considered to be a form of:
professional incest, dual relationship, illegal and unethical activity and a powerful betrayal of trust (ALL OF THE ABOVE).
In a study of counselors dealing with sexual attractions toward clients (Pope, Keith-Spiegel, and Tabachnick, 1986) it was concluded that
graduate training programs are leaving trainees largely unprepared for successfully dealing with their attractions.
Confidentiality can be considered as
central to developing trust in the therapeutic relationship, both an ethical and a legal issue, AND something that is regulated by professional judgment.
If a therapist determines that a client is suicidal, then
the therapist has a legal obligation to protect the client AND the therapist may have to seek consultation.
Which of the following actions is appropriate when a counselor feels that he or she is unqualified to work with a particular client?
Avoid initiating the counseling relationship, immediately terminate the relationship, suggest appropriate alternatives AND provide a referral. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
It is especially important for counselors who work with culturally diverse client populations to:
be aware of their own cultural heritage, have a broad base of counseling techniques that can be employed with flexibility, consider the cultural context of their clients in determining what interventions are appropriate, AND examine their own assumptions about cultural values. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
From a Freudian point of view, anxiety is best described as
a function of repressed, threatening material
Evidence for postulating the concept of the unconscious includes:
dreams, post-hypnotic suggestions, free-association. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
Transference is viewed as:
the core of the psychoanalytic process AND a means to uncover earlier unfinished business from past relationships.
As a result of the client/therapist relationship in the psychoanalytic therapy,
clients acquire insights into their own unconscious psychodynamics, clients are better able to understand the association between their past experiences and their current behavior, AND awareness is increased on the client's part. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
The techniques of psychoanalytic therapy are aimed at
fostering insights into the client's behavior
According to Adler, childhood experiences
in themselves are not as crucial as is our attitude toward these experiences.
The Adlerian point of view toward the role of insight in therapy is best stated as:
Insight is necessary before one can make any fundamental change.
Which is (are) true concerning one's style of life?
All people have a lifestyle, but no two people develop exactly the same style, the lifestyle is largely set by the age of 5, one's style of life is a reaction to perceived inferiority, AND one's style of life is learned from early interactions in the family.
In Adlerian counseling, the client/therapist relationship is characterized by
cooperation and respect AND equality.
Adlerians believe that discouragement
is the basic condition that prevents people from functioning AND can be overcome by encouragement.
One way that clients in Adlerian therapy are encouraged to change is
by acting as if they were already the way they want to be.
The basic goal of existential theory is
to expand self-awareness, to increase choice potentials, to help clients accept the responsibility of choosing AND to help the client experience authentic existence. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
Which technique is considered essential in existential therapy?
NON OF THE ABOVE - NOT free association, NOT analysis of resistance, NOT script analysis, NOT role playing
The philosophical assumptions underlying the existential approach include the notion(s) that
people are thrust into a meaningless and abstract world and that they are basically alone.
Which of the following is considered important person-centered therapy?
Accurate therapist interpretation
What is the central variable related to progress in person-centered therapy?
The relationship between the client and therapist.
"Therapist congruence" is a term that refers to the therapist's
In person-centered therapy, transference is
not an essential or significant factor in the therapy process.
Which of the following is a contribution of the person-centered viewpoint?
It calls attention to the need to account for a person's inner experience AND it has relied on research to validate the concepts and practices of the approach.
What is a limitation of person-centered therapy?
People in crisis situations often need more directive intervention strategies.
Which of the following personal characteristics the therapist is most important, according to Rogers?
Which of the following is not true about the most recent trends in person-centered therapy?
Acceptance and clarification are the main techniques used.
Rogers's current position on confronting the client is:
caring confrontations can be beneficial.
Carl Rogers drew heavily from existential concepts, especially as they apply to
the client/therapist relationship
The most important "technique" in person-centered therapy resulting in change is:
the relationship itself
Living authentically implies:
being true to our own evaluation of what constitutes a meaningful existence AND accepting responsibility for the fact that we create our lives by the choices we make.
The goals of existential therapy include all but _____________
helping clients eliminate anxiety in their lives. DOES INCLUDE: helping clients become more honest with themselves, broadening client's awareness of their choices, enabling clients to clarify their purpose and meaning in life.
Attributing to others the qualities or traits that are unacceptable to our own ego is best described as:
we believe there are powerful people who help us remain protected from our existential concerns
but our existential concerns are a part of our existence
-we can only live with vitality and authenticity if we come to terms with this
includes any of our projections that influence the way we perceive and react to a client.
The founder of Gestalt therapy is :
Fritz and Laura Perls
Which is not true of Gestalt therapy?
The focus is on the why of behavior.
Which of the following is not a key concept of Gestalt therapy?
Intellectual understanding of one's problems
According to the Gestalt view,
awareness is necessary , but not sufficient, condition for change.
The Gestalt therapist
pays attention to the client's nonverbal language.
Gestalt therapy can best be characterized as
an experiential therapy
Gestalt techniques are aimed at
integrating conflicting aspects with the person.
Gestalt therapy encourages clients to
experience feelings intensely, stay in the here-and-now, work through the impasse, AND pay attention to their own nonverbal messages. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
A limitation of Gestalt therapy is that
it is not grounded in solid theory AND it discounts cognitive factors in therapy. (Both B AND C)
The Gestalt approach can be applied to
individual counseling, group counseling, school and classroom situations, AND intensive workshops. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
A contribution of this therapeutic approach (Gestalt) is that
it enables intense experiencing to occur quickly, it can be a relatively brief therapy, and it stresses doing and experiencing, as oposed to talking about problems.
The therapeutic goals of Gestalt therapy include encouraging the client to
move toward a greater self-awareness AND gradually assume ownership of and responsibility for their experience.
Which of the following is not true about Gestalt techniques
Experiments are always carried out during the therapy session, rather than outside it.
Perls believed that clients play "blaming games" to
avoid taking responsibility for their own growth, to prevent themselves from becoming fully alive, AND to avoid staying in the "now" (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
Which of the following is not true about the Gestalt view of the role of confrontation in therapy?
It is not possible to be both confrontative and gentle with clients.
Which of the following Gestalt techniques is designed to help clients recognize and accept their feelings, rather than projecting them onto others?
"I take responsibility for.." this is an "I" statement. I/Thou
Reality therapy has gained popularity with
school counselors and administrators, school teachers (both elementary and secondary), AND rehabilitation workers. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
Which of the following is not a characteristic of reality therapy?
Bringing out repressed feelings through dream work
Reality therapy is best described as
a short-term therapy
This approach to therapy (reality) is designed to help people achieve
a "success identity" AND the ability to accept and live in reality (BOTH A AND C)
(reality) ind is able to give and receive love, has a sense of self worth and pssess the strenght to create a satisfying life
According to the philosophy of reality therapy,
Which is not a key concept of reality therapy?
Emphasis is given to unconscious motivation.
Which of the following is not true of reality therapy?
Working through the transference relationship is essential for therapy to occur.
Regarding the goals of reality therapy
it is the client's responsibility to decide goals.
The function of the reality therapist is
to assist clients in facing reality AND to encourage clients to make a value judgment concerning the quality of their behavior. (BOTH A AND B)
Which statement is not true of reality therapy?
It focuses on attitude change as a prerequisite for behavior change.
Reality therapy was originally designed for working with
youthful offenders in detention facilities.
Which method is often used in reality therapy?
Which of the following procedures would a reality therapist be least likely to employ?
Reliving an early childhood event
Which of the following are true of people who have a success identity?
They are able to give and receive love, they possess a sense of self-worth, AND the possess strength which creates a satisfying life. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
According to Glasser, criticism has a place in therapy when it
involves making value judgments about a client's behavior, is aimed more at our behavior than our person AND comes from a therapist who is friendly and caring. (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
A reality therapist will primarily focus on
When reality therapists explore a client's past, they tend to focus on
In reality therapy, the purpose of developing an action plan is
to arrange for successful experience (NOTATED: THIS IS CORRECT?)
In reality therapy, when a client fails to carry out their plans, the therapist will
challenge the client to accept the reasonable consequence of their behavior
Once clients make certain judgments about their behavior and decide how they want to change, the reality therapist expects them to
develop specific plans to change behavior; make a commitment to carry out plans in daily life (BOTH B AND C)
Reality therapy rests on the central idea that
we choose our behavior and are responsible for what we do, think and feel
The core of reality therapy consists of
teaching clients to take effective control of their own lives
All of the following are procedures that are commonly used in reality therapy except (EXCEPTION IS EXCLUDED - ONLY CORRECT PROCEDURES ARE LISTED):
exploring wants, needs, and perceptions; focusing on current behavior; planning and commitment; skillful questioning
Behavior therapy is grounded in
the principles of learning
Behavior therapy assumes that
behavior is learned
Behavior therapy is characterized by
a focus on overt specific behavior; a formulation of precise treatment goals; the design of an appropriate treatment plan; the objective assessment of the results of therapy (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
Behavior therapy is based on
The main goal of behavior therapy is
eliminating unadaptive learning and providing for more effective learning (PAGE 238)
Which is not true of behavior therapy? (ONLY TRUE STATEMENTS LISTED, INCORRECT STATEMENT OMITTED)
Therapy should focus on behavior change and not attitude change; therapy is not complete unless actions follow verbalization; a good working relationship between client and therapist is necessary for behavior change to occur
What is the function of the behavior therapist?
to provide modeling for the client; to apply his or her skills in developing a treatment plan; to assess specific behavior problems; to provide reinforcement for clients (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
Which of the following is not true regarding behavior therapy? (ONLY TRUE STATEMENTS LISTED; UNTRUE OMITTED)
the client must be an active participant; therapy cannot be imposed on unwilling clients; both therapist and client need to work together for common goals
Which of the following is not a key concept of behavior therapy?
UNKNOWN ANSWER; REF. PAGE 433 AND 237
Behavior therapy is suited for
individual therapy; group therapy; institutions and clinics; classroom learning situations (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
Which of the following is not a characteristic of behavior therapy? (ONLY TRUE CHARACTERISTICS LISTED; INCORRECT IS OMITTED)
treatment goals are specific and concrete; target problems in therapy are specifically defined; there is reliance on basic research concerning use of specific techniques; emphasis is given to observing overt behaviors
Who has done most of the work in the area of modeling?
B. F. Skinner is associated with which of the following trends in the behavioral approach?
Wolpe's systematic desensitization is based on the principles of
Skinner's view of controlling behavior is based on the principles of
Operant conditioning (PAGE 235)
With respect to the goals of behavior therapy, it can be said that
they occupy a place of central importance in behavior therapy; the general goal of behavior therapy is to create new conditions for learning; the client usualy formulates the goal; continual assessment occurs throughout therapy (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
All of the following are steps in the use of systematic desensitization except for (ONLY CORRECT STEPS ARE LISTED; INCORRECT STEP IS OMITTED)
relaxation training; the development of an anxiety hierarchy; systematic desensitization proper
Most of the assertiveness training methods are based on principles of
the cognitive-behavioral therapies
Effective assertion training programs
teach people skills and techniques for dealing with difficult situations; challenge one's beliefs that accompany lack of assertiveness (BOTH A AND B)
From a multi-modal therapy perspective, enduring change is seen as a function of
combined techniques, strategies, and modalities
Who is the developer of multi-modal therapy?
Which is not true as it applies to multi-modal therapy? (ONLY TRUE STATEMENTS LISTED; UNTRUE IS OMITTED)
therapeutic flexibility and versatility are valued highly; therapists adjust their procedures to effectively achieve the client's goals in therapy; the therapist makes a comprehensive assessment of the client's level of functioning at the outset of therapy
Rational emotive behavior therapy belongs to which category of therapy?
This approach to therapy stresses
thinking, judging, analyzing, and doing
What words would best describe REBT?
highly didactic and very directive
REBT is based on the philosophical assumption that human beings are
potentially able to think rationally but have a tendency toward irrational thinking
REBT views neurosis as the result of
irrational thinking and behaving
REBT contends that people
UNKNOWN ANSWERS, REFS PAGE 272 AND "QUIZLET"
REBT is based on the idea that we become emotionally disturbed because
we tend to keep re-indoctrination ourselves with irrational beliefs (PAGE 272)
According to REBT, we develop emotional disturbances because of
our belief about certain events
REBT employs what kind of method to help people resolve their emotional, behavioral problems?
the empirical method (PAGE 273, CAUSE and EFFECT)
The main therapeutic goal of REBT is
NONE OF THE ABOVE (WON'T LIST INCORRECT ANSWERS)
The role of the client in rational emotive behavior therapy is like that of a
student or learner
Who has developed a cognitive theory of behavior change?
Beck's cognitive therapy involves
helping clients recognize and discard self-defeating thinking; looking at a client's "internal dialogue"; correcting erroneous beliefs (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
According to Ellis, we develop emotional and behavioral difficulties because
we think of simple preferences as dire needs (PAGE 276-7)
An REBT therapist would contend that anxiety stems from
the internal repetition of irrational sentences
In REBT, what method is taught to clients to help them challenge irrational beliefs?
Which of the following is not true of Beck's cognitive therapy?
In Beck's cognitive therapy, the therapist and client work together to uncover and examine faulty interpretations. This process is known as
collaborative empiricism (PAGE 285)
Cognitive therapy is based on the assumption that
cognitions are the major determinants of how we feel and act
In cognitive therapy, therapy techniques are designed to
identify and test the client's misconceptions and faulty assumptions.
The type of cognitive error that involves thinking and interpreting in all-or-nothing terms, or in categorizing experiences in either/or extremes is known as
polarized thinking (PAGE 284)
Beck's cognitive therapy has been most widely applied to the treatment of
The process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings is known as
The concept of automatic thought plays a central role in whose theory?
Which approach places the most emphasis on creating meaning and new possibilities out of the sotries shared by clients?
social constructionist approaches
Of the following, what is an interest that social constructionists tend to share?
generating new meaning in the lives of individuals
Differentiation of self is the cornerstone of which theory?
Bowenian family therapy
What is the technique in family therapy that casts a new light on a problem and provides a different interpretation for a problematic situation?
Directives and paradoxical procedures are most likely to be used in which approach to family therapy?
strategic family therapy
Which is (are) a key role (or roles) of most family therapists?
teacher; model; coach; consultant (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
A tool for collecting and organizing key turning points in a three-generational extended family is a
One of Satir's techniques is
The family therapist who identified four universal communication patterns (placating, blaming, being super-reasonable, being irrelevant) that express defensive ways of coping with stress is
Satir would have been least likely to borrow therapy techniques from which approach?
Of the following, which technique is most associated with Satir's human validation model?
family reconstruction (PAGE 407)
In working with a family, a solution-oriented therapist would be least likely to use which of the following techniques? (ONLY TECHNIQUES LIKELY TO BE USED ARE LISTED, NOT INCORRECT ITEMS)
co-creating new solutions with a family; miracle questions; exception questions; using directives
Which of the following approaches to therapy focuses on the unique style of life we create at an early age?
psychoanalytical therapy (PAGE 432)
Which of the following therapies emphasizes that a person's belief system is the cause of emotional problems?
rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT?)
Which of the following approaches to therapy stresses the attitude of the therapist over the use of techniques?
Gestalt therapy (PAGE 441)
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