60 terms

Physical Science Final Semester 2

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Ion
A charged particle
Anion
A negatively charged particle
Cation
A positively charged particle
Solid
State of matter with a definite shape and a definite volume
Liquid
State of matter with no definite shape, but a definite volume
Gas
State of matter with no definite shape or volume
Plasma
State of matter in which atoms have enough energy to lose electrons and become ions
Element
Matter made of only one kind of atom
Compound
Matter made of 2 or more atoms of different elements that are chemically combined
Mixture
A blend of 2 or more substances that are physically mixed
Homogeneous Mixture
A mixture where substances are mixed equally and look the same throughout the entire mixture
Heterogeneous Mixture
A mixture that does not mix evenly and you can see different parts or substances in it
Matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Orbital
The 3D region around the nucleus where electrons are most-likely located
Orbit
A specific path that an object takes around another object
Solution
Another name for a homogeneous mixture
Ionic Bond
Electrical attraction between large numbers of cation and anions (between metals and nonmetals)
Covalent Bond
Occurs when 2 nonmetals share a pair of electrons between them
Valence Electron
An electron found in the outermost energy level that can be lost, gained, or shared during chemical bonding
Product
The substance that results after a chemical change, or the end substance
Reactant
The substance that you begin with and does the changing in a chemical reaction
Molecule
The name given to a compound that is formed by a covalent bond
Polyatomic Ion
A group of atoms that are covalently bonded and have a charge
Physical Change
A change in the size, shape, or phase of matter in which no new substance is formed
Chemical Change
A change from one substance to a new substance
Polar Molecule
Forms when there is an uneven sharing of electrons between nonmetals
Nonpolar Molecule
Forms when there is an equal sharing of electrons between nonmetals
Noble Gases
Atoms found in group 18 that do not like to form compounds and are gases at room temperature
Halogens
The most reactive of the nonmetals (due to 7 valence electrons) found in group 17
Atom
The smallest unit of matter that keeps the same properties of matter
Physical Property
A characteristic of a material that is observed without changing the material
Chemical Property
A characteristic of matter that can change one or more substance into one or more new substances
Viscosity
The resistance of a fluid to flow
Buoyancy
The ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object that is immersed in it
Melting
The changing of a solid to a liquid
Boiling
The changing of a liquid to a gas that occurs throughout a liquid at a specific temperature
Vaporization
The changing of a liquid to a gas
Deposition
The changing of a gas to a solid
Sublimation
The changing of a solid to a gas
Freezing
The changing of a liquid to a solid
Condensation
The changing of a gas to a liquid
Evaporation
The changing of a liquid to a gas that occurs at the surface of a liquid and can occur at nearly any temperature
Element, Mixture, Compound
Difference Between Elements, Compounds, & Mixtures
*A(n) ________________ is made of only one atom
*A(n) ________________ is made of 2 or more atoms physically combined
*A(n) ________________ is made of 2 or more atoms chemically combined
Heterogeneous, Homogeneous
Difference Between Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Mixtures
*A __________________ mixture is mixed unequally and does not look the same throughout
*A __________________ mixture is mixed equally and looks the same throughout
Physical, Chemical
Difference Between Physical and Chemical Changes
*A _______________ change changes the way a substance looks
*A _______________ change changes one substance into a new substance
Physical, Chemical
Difference Between Physical and Chemical Properties
*A _______________ property is the way something looks, smells, etc.
*A _______________ property is a property that can create a new substance
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
Atoms are made of ____________, _______________, and ________________
Protons, Neutrons
A nucleus is made of ________________ and ________________
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
_______________ and ___________ both have a relative mass of 1. ______________ have a relative mass of 0.0005
Mandeleev
Wrote his own textbook and created the periodic table in increasing order of atomic mass
Rutherford
Founded the nucleus
Dalton
Proved that atoms exist and created a theory made of 5 specific points
Chadwick
Discovered the neutron and its mass
Thompson
Discovered the electron
Pascal's Principle
States that the pressure on a fluid goes equally throughout the fluid in all directions
Charles's Law
States that if the volume of a gas doesn't change, neither does temperature (Vꜛ Tꜛ and V↓ T↓)
Bernoulli's Principle
States that the velocity of a fluid increases when the flow of the fluid is restricted
Archimedes's Principle
States that buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid
Boyles's Law
States that if the volume of a fluid goes down, the pressure goes up (V↓ Pꜛ and Vꜛ P↓)
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change forms