Forensics 2nd semester study guide

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What effect did the fact that suicide was committed at the Rudin crime scene have on the case?
Had to show the two blood patterns were from separate events.
Which chemical would best determine the presence of blood spatter that had been cleaned away?
Luminol
What does the tail of a stain tell you about blood spatter?
Points to the direction of travel
In the Marilyn Shepherd murder, how did investigators conclude that the perp was left handed?
A cast off pattern
A force between two unlike surfaces, such as blood and the surface of a wall, is _________.
Adhesion
What leaves the largest blood droplets on a target area?
low trauma velocity
What type of evidence is blood spatter pattern evidence considered?
Circumstantial
Which of the following effects blood stain shape?
Angle of impact, texture of target, velocity of droplet
The area containing the intersections generated by lines drawn through the long axes of stains.
Area of convergence
A bloodstain pattern resulting from the movement of a source of drip stains between two points
Drip trail
A bloodstain resulting from an accumulation of liquid blood on a surface
Pool
blood pattern resulting from it being thrown from an object due to its motion
Cast off stain
A pattern resulting from blood reduced to a spray of micro-drops as a result of the force
Mist pattern
An absence of blood in an otherwise continuous bloodstain or bloodstain pattern
void
An outline within a bloodstain resulting from air in the blood
bubble ring
A smaller bloodstain that originated from the parent stain as a result of impacting a surface
satellite
Which is the correct formula for determining the angle in which blood falls
Sin^-1 (W/L)
A person with 0 blood can give to:
any blood type
Which scientist was responsible for discovering both A and B proteins as well as the Rh factor?
Landsteiner
You collect a blood sample but do not know if it is human or an animal so you complete a:
presumptive test
What antigen(s) must be present to produce type AB+ blood?
A, B, Rh
A presumptive test can be used to identify
Human Blood
Historically, what percentage of the population is considered a secretor?
80
Which blood component acts as a foreign invader but also identifies blood type?
antigen
Which blood protein is responsible for transporting oxygen?
hemoglobin
Blood typing is ____________________ for analyzing blood evidence than DNA profiling.
less expensive and quicker
Since many different people share the same blood type, it is evidence is considered to be:
class evidence
An investigator finds a viscous, red liquid at a crime scene. While at there, he will perform a
presumptive test
What is the most important fact about Leukocytes to a Forensic Scientist?
they contain DNA
A- blood contains what ANTIGENS?
A
A+ blood contains what ANTIBODIES?
B
B+ Blood Contains what ANTIGENS?
B, Rh
B+ Blood Contains what ANTIBODIES
A
AB+ blood contains what ANTIGENS?
A, B, Rh
AB+ blood contains what ANTIBODIES?
none
O- blood contains what ANTIGENS?
none
O- blood contains what ANTIBODIES?
A, B, Rh
What process has occurred in the A and RH wells to cause a clotting effect?
agglutination
What type of evidence is gained from DNA profiling from a blood sample?
individual
A rabbit can be used to produce anti-human antibodies for this test.
priciptin test
Which blood cell produces antibodies?
white blood cell
Which group of blood cells is round in shape?
white
Which blood cell transports Oxygen?
red
Which component of blood is made of small cell fragments?
platelets
Which blood cell is known as an erythrocyte?
red
Which component of blood is a liquid suspending other blood components
plasma
Which question should NOT be answered by a blood analyst?
Who does it belong to?
What substance reacts with blood to produce a faint blue glow?
Luminol
What is the main drawback of luminol?
it destroys the properties of the blood
In what test does Phenolphthalein react with hemoglobin which turns pink in presence of blood?
Kastle Meyer
Which type of blood is known as the "universal donor?
O
Which type of blood is known as the "universal receptor"?
AB
A homicide is defined as
death of one person caused by another
A person dies after being kept from receiving proper health care by his or her caretaker.
homicide
A suicide is defined as
purposeful killing of oneself
T/F:
A coroner is an elected position.
true
Manner of death is borderline & the medical examiner doesn't have enough evidence it is called?
undetermined
T/F:
A medical examiner is an elected position.
false
Blood settling causing skin to change to a purplish red color is known as
lividity
A accidental manner of death is defined as
unplanned event
The reason someone dies is defined as
cause of death
Livor mortis roughly means
death color
The skinnier the person, the _____________ the rigor
faster
What are factors of liver mortis?
weight, illness, physical activity
A corpse shows signs of two positions. When was the body moved for this to be visible?
2-6 hours
A natural manner of death is defined as
failure of body functions due to old age/disease
What describes the specific change in the body that brought about the death?
mechanism of death
Algor mortis roughly means
death heat
When is lividity first noticeable?
2 hours after death
If clothes are present, _______________ the rigor
faster
What happens in algor mortis?
body cools down
Rigor mortis roughly means
death stiffness
If exercise happened right before death, the ___________ the rigor
faster
A corpse shows signs of two positions, what do we call this?
dual lividity
Where do you take the temperature of a corpse?
liver
In the first 12 hours after death at what rate does the body's temperature drop?
1.4 degrees F
When is lividity permanent?
8 hours
The Post Mortem Interval refers to
time since death
A person with a heart condition is attacked and dies of cardiac arrest during the attack.
homicide
What is the word for the breakdown of cells as they self digest?
autolysis
When is rigor mortis at its peak?
12 hours
If food is found in the stomach, the person's last meal was within _______ hours of their death
0-2 hours
A colder external temperature causes rigor to set in ________
more slowly
What is the main goal of an autopsy?
determine cause of death
What type of test results would include the concentration of a drug present?
quantitative
Which drug induces sleep and relieves pain?
narcotics
Which group of controlled substances are the most dangerous?
I
Which drug increases alertness and speeds up the CNS?
stimulants
What type of chemicals make up the majority of chemical evidence?
drugs
What type of test results would include the names of drugs present?
qualitative
Which drug promotes cell division and tissue growth?
anabolic steroids
Who is the "Father of Toxicology"
Mathieu Orfila
What is the only viable evidence that can be used to measure long term abuse of a drug?
hair
What is the fifth stage of pharmacokinetics?
elimination
Which drug changes perceptions, thought processes, and moods?
hallucinogens
Which drug produces euphoria then drowsiness and slows the CNS?
depressants
What is the branch of toxicology that deals with the medico-legal aspects?
forensic
What word best describes the body's need for larger amounts of a chemical?
tolerance
What is the second stage of pharmacokinetics?
absorption
What is the end goal of an autopsy?
find COD
What is the third stage of pharmacokinetics?
distribution
What is the most common mechanism of poisoning?
eaten
What is the fourth stage of pharmacokinetics?
metabolism
Alcohol, THC, and cocaine account for about ____ or more of drugs in a typical lab?
90%
What scientist stated "The dose makes the poison?"
Paracelsus
What is the first stage of pharmacokinetics?
ingestion
What kind of bonds are formed by elements sharing electrions?
covanlent
Which word describes how the body processes chemicals and drugs?
pharmacokinetics
What type of alcohol is most often used in alcoholic beverages?
ethanol
Which of the following are chemical bonds between metals and non metals?
ionic
Which type of test involves separating and identifying components of a mixture?
chromatography`
Which person was poisoned by arsenic in 1800s France?
Charles Lafarge
Which type of tests involve mixing drug samples with chemicals to observe a change?
color
Where is most alcohol absorbed into the blood stream?
large intestine
Which type of toxicological test is based on the antigen-antibody response?
immunoassay
Where is most alcohol broken down in the body?
liver
Which cells build up your bones?
osteoblasts
Which cells break down your bones
osteoclasts
Which word refers to the shaft of the bone?
diaphisis
Osteobiography literally translates as the story of life as told by:
bones
At birth, a baby has about how many bones?
400
Bones are primarily made of what 2 elements?
calcium and phosphorus
What term means "closer to the head-end"?
superior
What is the process of making a face on a skull with an unknown person?
reconstruction
What is the science that deals with teeth, their structure, development and diseases?
odontology
What word refers to the science or study of bones?
osteology
What term refers to the study of human remains?
forensic anthropology
What term refers to ends of long bones?
epiphisis
What term means "toward the front of"?
anterior
What term refers to the study of insects?
entomology
What term means "toward the back of"?
posterior
What type of bone makes the bone stronger?
compact
What type of bone, found in the ends, makes the bone light weight and flexible?
spongey
If an investigator finds a particular suture has closed, what information can they find?
age
What type of DNA would most likely be found in human remains?
mDNA
What are bands of tissue connecting two or more bones together
ligament
What attaches muscles to bones?
tendons
T/F:
If a person were RIGHT handed, expect the bones of the left side of their body to be bigger.
false
T/F:
The features of a female skull will be slightly larger than those of a male skull.
false
T/F:
Bones respire, consume energy, and are able to reproduce like other cells.
true