Biology EOC Vocabulary
Terms in this set (84)
Organic compounds are compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and often oxygen or nitrogen. Organic compounds are named so because they are associated with living organisms. Several important types of organic compounds include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins.
A large complex molecule, such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, with relatively large molecular weight.
Biological polymers are large molecules composed of many similar smaller molecules linked together (many monomers linked together). The individual smaller molecules are called monomers. When small organic molecules are joined together, giant molecules are produced. These giant molecules are known as macromolecules.
A molecule that may react chemically to another molecule of the same type to form a larger molecule, such as polymer. (building block of a polymer)
Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.usually in the ratio of 1:2:1
Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the simplest form of sugar. They are the building blocks of more complex carbohydrates such as disaccharides and polysaccharides. Physically, they are usually colorless, can dissolve in water, and have the appearance of a crystal-like substance.
A polysaccharide is a long-chain carbohydrate made up of smaller carbohydrates called monosaccharides that's typically used by our bodies for energy or to help with cellular structure. Each monosaccharide is connected together via glycosidic bonds to form the polysaccharide.
Lipids tend to contain many more hydrogen atoms than oxygen atoms. Lipids include fats, steroids, phospholipids, and waxes. One main characteristic of lipids is that they do not dissolve in water
Fatty acids are the building blocks of the fat in our bodies and in the food we eat. During digestion, the body breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can then be absorbed into the blood.
A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order (large chain of amino acids); the order is determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the gene that codes for the protein. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs; and each protein has unique functions. Examples are hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.
Amino acids are special organic molecules used by living organisms to make proteins. The main elements in amino acids are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. There are twenty different kinds of amino acids that combine to make proteins in our bodies. Our bodies can actually make some amino acids, but the rest we must get from our food. (Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins)
A peptide bond is a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). This is a dehydration synthesis reaction (also known as a condensation reaction), and usually occurs between amino acids.
Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts within living cells. Catalysts increase the rate at which chemical reactions occur without being consumed or permanently altered themselves. A chemical reaction is a process that converts one or more substances (known as reagents, reactants, or substrates) to another type of substance (the product). As a catalyst, an enzyme can facilitate the same chemical reaction over and over again.
A substrate is a molecule acted upon by an enzyme. A substrate is loaded into the active site of the enzyme, or the place that allows weak bonds to be formed between the two molecules.
Lock and Key Model
The active site refers to the specific region of an enzyme where a substrate binds and catalysis takes place or where chemical reaction occurs.
Nucleic acids, macromolecules made out of units called nucleotides, come in two naturally occurring varieties: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA is the genetic material found in living organisms, all the way from single-celled bacteria to multicellular mammals like you and me. Some viruses use RNA, not DNA, as their genetic material, but aren't technically considered to be alive (since they cannot reproduce without help from a host).
The basic building block of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. It is an organic compound made up of nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
A double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.
Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid: a nucleic acid that is generally single stranded and plays a role in transferring information from DNA to protein-forming system of the cell.
pH is a measure of the hydorgen ion concentration of a solution. Solutions with a high concentration of hydrogen ions have a low pH and solutions with a low concentrations of H+ ions have a high pH.
Any of a class of compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions react with bases and certain metals to form salts.
The nucleobase of a nucleotide involved in base pairing, as of a DNA or RNA polymer. (Bases are substances that accept protons from acids.)
An ionic compound that when added to a solution neutralizes both acids and bases without significantly changing the original acidity or alkalinity of a solution
The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, usually by a system of feedback controls, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditions
A membrane-bound compartment or structure in a cell that performs a special function (a specialized part of a cell having some specific function)
Basic unit of life
An individual living thing that can react to stimuli, reproduce, grow, and maintain homeostasis. It can be a virus, bacterium, protist, fungus, plant or an animal. (living things)
Pertaining to an organism whose functions are all carried out within one cell. (Made of a single cell)
Any of the group of organisms primarily characterized by the lack of true nucleus and other membrane-bound cell compartments: such as mitochondria and chloroplasts (Cells that do not contain nuclei)
an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus. Eukaryotes include all living organisms other than the eubacteria and archaebacteria. (Cells that contain nuclei)
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended ("river of life", fluid "blood" portion of the cell; CHOPKINS CaFe)
Protective layer of all cells; it's "skin"; filters (semi-permeable) (A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.)
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized. (Makes proteins for the cell)
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction (The "brain" of the cell; contains DNA; control center)
sites of cellular respiration which supply energy to the cell (Produces energy for the cell (ATP); powerhouse; Mighty Mitochondria)
Stores water and waste for the plant cell; plants have larger ones
Site of photosynthesis (Helps with photosynthesis, green color (plant))
A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell (extra protection in a plant cell)MU
Having or consisting of many cells or more than one cell to perform all vital functions (Made up of more than one cell.)
A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.
a two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane, the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic phosphate ends facing outward. ... Also called lipid bilayer. (A double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes.)
the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area with a higher number of particles to an area with a lower number of particles. The areas are typically separated by a membrane.
The condition in which all acting influences are balanced or canceled by equal opposing forces, resulting in a stable system.
The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
Diffusion is the net passive movement of particles (atoms, ions or molecules) from a region in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. It continues until the concentration of substances is uniform throughout.
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy.
The synthesis of complex organic material using carbon dioxide, water, inorganic salts, and light energy (from sunlight) captured by light-absorbing pigments, such as chlorophyll and other accessory pigments. (Process by which autotrophs convert light energy into chemical energy)
a substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction
The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.
The green pigment found in the chloroplasts of higher plants and in cells of photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g. photosynthetic bacteria), which is primarily involved in absorbing light energy for photosynthesis.
Tiny openings called stomata allow plants to exchange gases necessary for cellular processes, such as photosynthesis.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
The process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
A form of cellular respiration that requires oxygen in order to generate energy. (Respiration that requires oxygen)
A form of cellular respiration that occurs when oxygen is absent or scarce. (Respiration that does not require oxygen)
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Lactic acid fermentation is the process by which our muscle cells deal with pyruvate during anaerobic respiration. When our cells need energy, they break down simple molecules like glucose. ... The cells turn pyruvate, the products of glycolysis, into lactic acid.
The process by which yeast turns sugar into carbon dioxide (CO2) and alcohol.
An autotrophic organism capable of producing complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules through the process of photosynthesis (using light energy) or through chemosynthesis (using chemical energy)
An organism whose ecological function involves the recycling of nutrients by performing the natural process of decomposition as it feeds on dead or decaying organisms. (organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter)
The combined processes, including photosynthesis, decomposition, and respiration, by which carbon as a component of various compounds cycles between its major reservoirs—the atmosphere, oceans, and living organisms. (The organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again)
Structure of DNA
The sugar component in the side chains of DNA, in contrast to the ribose in the side chains of RNA.
Base Pairing Rule
The rules of base pairing explain the phenomenon that whatever the amount of adenine (A) in the DNA of an organism, the amount of thymine (T). Similarly, whatever the amount of guanine (G), the amount of cytosine (C) is the same.
Watson and Crick
Watson and Crick worked together on studying the structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the molecule that contains the hereditary information for cells. At that time Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, both working at King's College, London, were using X-ray diffraction to study DNA.
The process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA.
The basic building block of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. It is an organic compound made up of nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group. Supplement. DNA molecule consists of nucleotides in which the sugar component is deoxyribose whereas the RNA molecule has nucleotides in which the sugar is a ribose.
Forming proteins based on information in DNA and carried out by RNA
The conversion of the information from the gene into mRNA via transcription and then to protein via translation resulting in the phenotypic manifestation of the gene. (process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function)
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
The conversion of the information from the gene into mRNA via transcription and then to protein via translation resulting in the phenotypic manifestation of the gene.
Transfer RNA. Small RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosome for polymerization into a polypeptide. During translation the amino acid is inserted into the growing polypeptide chain when the anticodon of the tRNA pairs with a codon on the mRNA being translated.
A step in protein biosynthesis wherein the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA.
A set of three adjacent nucleotides, also called triplet, in mRNA that base-pair with the corresponding aniticodon of tRNA molecule that carries a particular amino acid, hence, specifying the type and sequence of amino acids for protein synthesis. (ATA-CGA-ATC-GTA)
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
The process where a single cell divides resulting in generally two identical cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes and genetic content as that of the original cell (Cell division)
A self-replicating, small, fibrous, cylindrical-shaped organelle, typically located in the cytoplasm near the nucleus in cells of most animals. It is involved in the process of nuclear division.
Any of a network of filaments that collectively form a mitotic spindle (in mitosis) and meiotic spindle (in meiosis) and responsible in moving and segregating the chromosomes during nuclear division
A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of certain eukaryotes.
A chromatid is one-half of two identical copies of a replicated chromosome. During cell division, the identical copies are joined together at the region of the chromosome called the centromere. Joined chromatids are known as sister chromatids
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
One of a pair of chromosomes (a chromosome with the same gene sequence as another)
A cell or an organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes: usually, one set from the mother and another set from the father. In a diploid state the haploid number is doubled, thus, this condition is also known as 2n.