107 terms

2017 Adv Spring Finals Review

Mitosis vocabulary
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Cell Cycle
The regular sequence of growth & division that cells undergo. Consists of interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis.
Interphase
The stage of the cell cycle that takes place in between cell divisions; the cell grows, copies its DNA (DNA replication) & prepares to divide.
Replication
The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus. This occurs during the S-phase of interphase.
Chromosome
A double rod of condensed chromatin wrapped around histone proteins; contains DNA that carries genetic information .
Cancer
A disease in which the body cells grow & divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them.
Mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome.
Mitosis
The process of cell division that occurs in all body cells in which 2 genetically identical cells are produced with the same number of chromosomes
Double helix
the shape of DNA (like a twisted ladder)
Nucleotide
The monomer (basic building block) of DNA; composed of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine)
Nucleic Acid
DNA and RNA are examples of this type of macromolecule (which is composed of nucleotides)
Chromatid
Half of a chromosome after DNA replication, attached at a centromere
diploid
of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number, abbreviated 2N
haploid
containing only one set of chromosomes; half the number of chromosomes as body cells, abbreviated N
homologous chromosomes
Chromosome pairs that are similar in shape and size, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same traits. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
meiosis
A process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells; produces 4 non-identical gametes (sperm or egg)
sperm
A male gamete or sex cell.
egg
A female gamete or sex cell
sexual reproduction
A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.
crossing over
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis. Increases genetic variation
genetic recombination
new combination of genetic information in a gamete as a result of crossing over during prophase I of meiosis
nondisjunction
An error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other.
trait
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
genetics
Branch of biology that studies heredity
gamete
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during fertilization to produce a diploid zygote.
fertilization
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
zygote
A one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg.
law of segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
law of independent assortment
Mendel's law stating that each allele pair segregates independently during gamete formation; applies when genes for two characteristics are located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes. This increases genetic variation.
Meiosis
Creates 4 haploid gamete cells from a diploid cell.
Chromatin
Uncoiled DNA; thread like structures containing all genetic information (only "appears" during Interphase)
Meiosis 1
the separation of homologous chromosomes to create 2 new haploid cells from 1 diploid cell
Meiosis 2
the separation of sister chromatids to create 4 haploid gametes
sister chromatids
2 halves of a duplicated chromosome after DNA replication; they are connected by a centromere
DNA replication
The process by which DNA makes a copy of itself, occurs in the nucleus of the cell
chromatid
one of two identical halves of a duplicated chromosome
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that determines the genetic information
RNA
ribonucleic acid is produced by copying a segment of a DNA strand into a complementary single-stranded RNA molecule during a process called transcription
transcription
the process by which mRNA is made from a segment of DNA, occurs in the nucleus of the cell
thymine
a nitrogenous base found only in DNA
uracil
a nitrogenous base found only in RNA
translation
the process by which a polypeptide chain is made from mRNA, occurs at a ribosome
deoxyribose
5-carbon sugar found in DNA
ribose
5-carbon sugar found in RNA
DNA nucleotide
the basic building block of DNA; composed of a 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one of 4 nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, guanine)
codon
3 nucleotides in a row that specify an amino acid
amino acids
the building block of proteins
mRNA
(messenger RNA) is made from a segment of a DNA strand and carries the instructions for building a protein
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
DNA--> mRNA--> protein--> traits
semi-conservative
each new DNA strand contains one original strand and one new strand therefore it is called semi-conservative
Ribosome
the site of protein synthesis (translation)
Nucleus
the site of replication and transcription
gene
a segment of DNA that determines a trait
homozygous
having two of the same alleles (for example PP, or pp)
heterozygous
having two different alleles (for example, Pp)
dominant
a gene that hides the other gene for the trait (abbreviated with a capital letter)
recessive
a gene that is hidden by the dominant gene for the trait (abbreviated with a lower case letter)
genotype
the genetic makeup
phenotype
the physical expression of the genes
carrier
an individual that has the gene but does not express it
heredity
the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
allele
a different form of a gene
probability
the likelihood an event will occur
Natural Selection
Organisms with more advantageous traits for their environment survive and reproduce more often (This causes traits in the population to change over time).
Overproduction of offspring
Organisms produce more offspring than needed to sustain the population.
Struggle To Survive
Hunger, disease, and predators all make it difficult for organisms to survive.
Successful reproduction
The best adapted to their environment are likely to have many offspring that survive.
Biological Fitness / Fittest
Ability to survive and reproduce
Adaptation
A trait that helps a population survive (Polar bear's white fur helps them hide from prey in the snow).
Population
A group organisms of the same species living in a particular area at the same time
Extinction
occurs when the last individual of a species dies
Reproduce
Have offspring
Species
Group of organisms that can reproduce together
Trait
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
Diversity
Differences in a population
Variation
Any difference between individuals of the same species.
Descent with Modification
Evolution. The idea that new generations of organisms are different from their parents, and this helps lead to natural selection.
founder effect
when a small group of individuals leaves a population and colonizes a new habitat and the allele frequencies of the new population are different from the parent population
immigration
movement of individuals and their alleles into a population
emigration
movement of individuals and their alleles out of a population
allele frequency
proportion of a gene copies in a population that are a given allele
gene pool
total genetic information available in a population
bottlenecking
a sudden reduction in a population's genetic diversity due to a sudden decrease in a population
gene flow
process of genes moving from one population to another
fossils
Remains of organisms that died long ago
homologous structures
Physical structures in two different organisms that have structural similarity due to a common ancestor
evolution
Change in the heritable traits of a population from one generation to the next; change over time

Change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
vestigial structures
Remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
comparative anatomy
The study of similarities and differences among structures of living species.
Comparing the anatomy of different organisms supports the idea of descent with modification from a common ancestor
molecular biology
The study of heredity at the molecular level. Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences between different organisms reveal evolutionary relationships
embryology
The study of the early development of living things. Similar patterns of embryological development provide further evidence that organisms have descended from a common ancestor
speciation
the formation of new species in the course of evolution
allopatric speciation
the formation of new species due to geographic isolation; once the subpopulations become isolated the gene pools of each separate population begin to differ due to genetic drift, natural selections and mutations
geographic isolation
physical separation of members of a former population
species
a group of individuals who can successfully interbreed but cannot breed with other groups
isolation
when members of a formerly interbreeding population stop interbreeding
sympatric speciation
the formation of new species due to reproductive barriers while living in the same area
reproductive isolation
genetic isolation without geographic isolation; involves reproductive barriers between members of the population in the same geographically area
genetic diversity
the variety of different traits in a population
genetic drift
A random change in allele frequency caused by a series of chance occurrences that cause an allele to become more or less common in a population
natural selection
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
mutations
Heritable changes in genetic information. The source of all genetic diversity.
interbreed
Reproduce with other members of the same species
population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
alleles
Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism.
Complete Dominance
a relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another
Incomplete Dominance
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
Codominance
A condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed

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