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Justinian
Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians
Theodora
The wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt.
Procopius
Historian of the Byzantine Empire who in his Secret History revealed the cruelty of the autocratic system in which the emperor ruled by divine providence.
mehmet II
7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire)
cyril
Byzantine missionary that was sent to Russia to spread Orthodoxy; created Slavic Cyrillic script
methodius
Along with Cyril, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
olga of kiev
Igors wife, took succession after his death but was a regent. Converted to Christianity and wanted a church but not to govern the country
vladimir
Russian ruler who chose Byzantine Christianity as the official religion of the Russian state
ivan the great
Ivan III, was the Grand Duke of Moscow, ended Mongol domination of his dukedom, extended territories, subdued nobles, and attained absolute power; made Moscow the center of a new Russian state with a central government
ivan the terrible
(1533-1584) (ivan 3) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.
batu khan
the grandson of Ghengis Khan, the first Mongol to invade Russia; Kiev fell to him, and Russian cities became dependent, tribute-paying principalities of the Mongol empire
muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
abu bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
avicenna
Arabian philosopher and physician
firdawsi
wrote the Shah Namah, or Book of Kings, that told the history of Persia
omar khayyam
Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald's translation (1050-1123)
ibn rushd
Muslim philosopher who blended Aristotle and Plato's views with Islam
ibn khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city.
al-khwarizmi
muslim mathematician who created the technique of "al-jabr" or algebra
muhammad al-razi
the head physician of Baghdad's chief hospital, wrote many books including on measles and small pox, challenged and accepted medical practices
ibn sina
Islamic physician, wrote a book called Canon on Medicine, which was an encyclopedia of Greek, Arabic, and his own knowledge of medicine. This book became the standard medical text in Europe for over five hundred years.
nika rebellion
in 532, the Blues and the Greens (opposite sides, participants in chariot races) 6were angry with the government so they rioted in the hippodrome, but Belisarius and his men broke in and slaughtered 30,000 rebels
Constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire from Rome.
justinian's code
Laws of the byzantine empire based the twelve tables of Roman law, became a basis for laws in many European nations
autocrat
a person with unlimited influence and authority (usually a negative word)
patriarch
the male head of family or tribe
icon
a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface
great schism
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
steppe
extensive plain without trees (associated with eastern Russia and Siberia)
taiga
biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw
kiev
capital and largest city of the Ukraine
slavs
a people from the forests north of the Black Sea, ancestors of many peoples in Eastern Europe today., the group of people in southeastern Europe who were the same ethnic group as the Russians
the primary chronicle
a history of Russia written by monks in the early 1100s
cyrillic
an alphabet drived from the Greek alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages
tsar
a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)
czar
a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)
golden horde
a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century`1
balkan peninsula
a large peninsula in southeastern Europe containing the Balkan Mountain Range
ethnic group
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
diet
the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal) die with a t.
golden bull of 1222
charter that strictly limited royal power in Hungary
Bedouin
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
yathrib
A city Muhammad and his followers visited after death threats to Muhammad (later named Medina)
hijra
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
kaaba
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
qur'an
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
mosque
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
five pillars
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
hajj
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
social mobility
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
calligraphy
the art of fine handwriting
sunni
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
shi'a
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life