generally, since the 1970's, the Supreme Court has scrutinized gender classifications closely and has declared many gender-based laws unconstitutional. In 1979, the Court held that a state law allowing wives to obtain alimony judgments against husbands but preventing husbands from receiving alimony from wives violated the equal protection clause. In 1892, the Court declared that Mississippi's policy of excluding males for Women was unconstitutional. In a controversial 1996 case, United States v. Virginia, the Court held that Virginia Military Institute, a stat-financed institution, violated the equal protection clause by refusing to accept female applicants. The court said that the state of Virginia had failed to provide a sufficient justification for its gender-based classification. Despite many recent court rulings, the goal of equal treatment for women has yet to be fully achieved.