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communities of run-down shacks on the outskirt of cities


a situation in which the supply of manufactured goods exceeds the demand

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

individual chosen by the Democrats to run for President in 1932, he ran on the pledge of a new deal for America

civil rights

rights guaranteed in the Constitution, especially voting and equal treatment under the law

John Collier

under President FDR, this individual was the Commissioner of Indian Affairs who worked to create jobs for Native Americans and worked to protect Native American land

Black Tuesday

this is the name given to October 29, 1929 when the stock market completely crashed

fireside chats

radio talks that were held by FDR to try to boost Americans' confidence in the banks

Eleanor Roosevelt

First Lady who advocated for womens' rights and civil rights

payroll tax

a tax that removes money directly from workers' paychecks

sit-down strike

workers stay in the factory but stop working

Huey Long

Democratic Senator from Louisiana who argued that the government should tax the wealthy and distribute their wealth to the poor

migrant worker

person that travels from farm to farm picking crops


fail to repay loans

Francis Townsend

California doctor who wanted a system of government pensions, such as the social security system

Marian Anderson

an African American singer who was not allowed to perform for the Daughters of the American Revolution


financial failure caused by a company's inability to pay its debts

John Steinbeck

author of the book, The Grapes of Wrath, which describes the miseries of the Dust Bowl

John Lewis

this individual headed the United Mine Workers union, and later formed the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which was an umbrella organization that consisted of many other unions

Frances Perkins

this individual served as FDR's Secretary of Labor, chaired the Social Securities Act, and wanted employers and employees to work together to create a good working environment, fair wages, and good relations amongst people

collective bargaining

a process that allowed the union to negotiate wages and benefits for all union members; employers were forced to participate in this process with the union

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