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Arts and Humanities
Scripture and Its Interpretation ch 1: The Bible
Terms in this set (42)
Greek for "revelation"; (1) a genre of Jewish and Christian literature filled with symbolism and visions intended to unveil unseen realities (e.g., heaven and its inhabitants) as well as historical realities (past, present, and future) in order to offer a critique of contemporary political arrangements in light of the coming kingdom of God; (2) a name for the last NT book (Revelation).
From the Greek adjective meaning "hidden"; (1) the books of the Greek OT (Septuagint) not included in the Hebrew canon or the Protestant canon but included in the Catholic and Orthodox canons; (2) certain early Christian writings not included in the NT (usually "NT Apocrypha").
A language closely related to Hebrew and the lingua franca of the Persian Empire that gradually replaced spoken Hebrew after the Babylonian exile, and was thus the language of some later parts of the OT and of Jesus.
The period (586-539 BCE) during which many of the people of Judah were deported to Babylonia.
"Before the Common Era," a scholarly alternative to the traditional "BC" ("Before Christ").
From the Greek word for book, biblion (pl. biblia), derived from the words for the papyrus plant (byblos, biblos); the collected sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity.
From the Greek word kanōn, meaning "measuring stick"; (1) a rule, norm, or guide for faith and practice; (2) especially a list, collection, or catalog of Scriptures (sacred writings) that the Jewish and/or Christian communities consider inspired and authoritative for their faith and practice.
"Common Era" (i.e., the shared Christian and Jewish era), a scholarly alternative to the traditional "AD" (Anno Domini, "in the year of our Lord").
Originally, a writing tablet framed in wood (Latin caudex); later, a set of individual sheets of papyrus or parchment bound together as a "book" and protected by a leather or wooden cover.
The common period and calendar shared by Jews and Christians, beginning with the appearance of Jesus and the early church.
An alphabetical list or index of words that occur in a corpus of literature (esp. the Bible), with their references or textual locations
(1) A formal agreement (originally political) specifying mutual benefits and obligations between the contracting parties; (2) thus, one of the major theological terms for describing the binding relationship of God with Israel and all humankind; (3) occasionally used to refer to the Jewish Scriptures or the NT, as in "Old Covenant" or "New Covenant."
Referring to a "second canon," a Roman Catholic designation for the seven books (plus additional portions of Esther and Daniel) from the Septuagint that are not found in the Hebrew canon or in Jerome's Latin Vulgate but are included in the Catholic (and Orthodox) canon.
The act of "leading out" of the text a meaning based on the careful literary, historical, and/or theological analysis and interpretation of a text; in contrast to eisegesis ("reading into"), though it is generally recognized that no interpretation is without bias.
An alternative name for the Christian Old Testament.
Literary type, form, or classification (e.g., historical narrative, collection of prophetic oracles, letter, apocalypse).
"Good news"; (1) the salvific message about Jesus preached by his followers ("the gospel"); (2) a genre of early Christian writing that includes accounts of Jesus' activity and/or teachings, whether canonical or not (e.g., "early Christian gospels"; "the Gospel of Thomas"); (3) one of four such accounts included in the NT canon, usually indicated by an uppercase G (e.g., "the Gospel of Luke"; "the Gospels" as the collection of four).
The lingua franca (common tongue) of the Mediterranean basin following the conquests of Alexander the Great, and hence the language of both the LXX and the NT.
The primary language of the Tanak, or Old Testament.
An alternative designation for the Scriptures of Israel (Tanak; the Christian Old Testament), written primarily in Hebrew.
The ancestors of the Israelite nation (from Abraham and Sarah until the time of Moses); (2) an anonymous Jewish-Christian NT writing usually understood as a homily in letter form.
Derived from the Hebrew and Greek words for Judah and Judea/Judean; the term for the people of Israel after the Babylonian exile, replacing "Israelites."
Hebrew for "Writings," the third major division of the Tanak, the Jewish Scriptures.
(1) The Hasmoneans; (2) one or more of the four writings (1-4 Maccabees) from the OT Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha concerned with the Hasmonean era.
Latin for "the mission of God."
Hebrew for "Prophets," the second major division of the Tanak, the Jewish Scriptures.
New Testament (NT)
The second part of the Christian Bible, containing writings that present the new covenant (Latin testamentum) inaugurated by the coming, life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
Old Testament (OT)
The first part of the Christian Bible, containing the Jewish Scriptures (the Tanak, or Hebrew Bible) and, except in Protestantism, several additional writings from the Greek Old Testament (the Septuagint).
A marshland plant found in Egypt, Galilee, and other wetlands that could be cut into strips, woven, and dried to form a writing surface; papyrus sheets could be glued or sewn together to form a scroll or codex.
The "thought rhyme" typical of ancient Hebrew and Jewish poetry, of which one main form is the pairing of similar ideas or images, rather than similar-sounding words.
Writing material prepared from animal skins, which could be used to provide more durable manuscripts than those made from papyrus; parchment sheets were attached to form a scroll or codex.
(1) Falsely attributed, pseudonymous writings; (2) a collection of noncanonical ancient Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings from ca. 200 BCE to 200 CE that purport to originate with a biblical character.
Referring to Jewish teachers (rabbis), especially the era of Jewish teachers following the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE ("rabbinic Judaism").
From the Latin scriptura, "writings"; sacred writings, especially those of Judaism and Christianity.
A roll of papyrus sheets glued together, or of parchment sewn together, to form a roll containing written texts.
An alternate name for the New Testament
Traditional name for the most influential Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, which probably began at Alexandria in Egypt in the third century BCE and was used by both Jews and Christians.
Referring to the Jewish Scriptures, an acronym formed from the first Hebrew letter of each of its three divisions (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim).
From a Latin word (testamentum) that can mean "covenant," referring to the two divisions (Old Testament, New Testament) of the Christian Bible.
(1) Hebrew for "tradition" or "instruction"; (2) when capitalized, the Jewish designation for the first five books of the Bible, Genesis-Deuteronomy, the first division of Tanak; (3) sometimes translated as "law/the Law."
The Latin translation of the Bible prepared in the late fourth and early fifth centuries, most of which was the work of Jerome of Bethlehem (d. 420 CE), and which became the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.
Designated Ketuvim in Hebrew, the third division of Tanak, including Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and (1-2) Chronicles.
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