Upgrade to remove ads
Chem Final (Semester 1)
Terms in this set (39)
what are the indicators of a chemical change?
-formation of a gas (smoke, bubbles)
-energy change (temperature)
-formation of a precipitate (a solid)
changes in state
changes in identity
matter that has a uniform composition (elements, compounds)
physical blend between 2 or more substances
not uniform in composition
completely uniform in composition
what did John Dalton conclude?
-all matter is composed of atoms
-compounds are formed by combinations of different elements
-law of constant composition
what experiment did Ernest Rutherford carry out and what did he theorize?
-gold foil experiment
-theorized nucleus and protons
-also proved the plum pudding model wrong
what did Thomson conclude after his experiment?
-an atom is a positive cloud
what did Millikan conclude?
-charge of electrons is 1.60217662x10^-19
-oil drop experiment
what did Bohr conclude?
-planetary model/orbit model
-based on emission of hydrogen
-electrons orbit the nucleus
-believed to have energy levels
-electrons move freely within clouds
how do you write magnesium as a subatomic particle?
how do you find the number of protons in subatomic particles?
-it is the same number as the atomic number
how do you find the number of electrons in subatomic particles?
-it's the same number as the atomic number
how do you find the number of neutrons in subatomic particles?
-mass number - protons
how do you find the mass number in subatomic particles?
-protons + neutrons
what is the charge and what protects you from an alpha particle?
what is the charge and what protects you from a beta particle?
-a sheet of aluminum
what is the charge and what protects you from a positron?
what is the charge and what protects you from gamma?
-time required to half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay
what are the formulas for calculating light?
who proved particles could behave like waves?
Louis de Broglie
how many waves go through at a certain time
number of waves per second
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
-it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time
-the location of an electron can only be determined if it is struck by a photon
-our eyes cannot see the difference between a pure color and a mix of colors
-organized elements by increasing atomic mass
-elements w/ similar properties were grouped together
-predicted properties of undiscovered elements
-organized elements by increasing atomic number
-resolved discrepancies in Mendeleev's arrangement
-size of an atom
-increases to the left and down
-size of an ion
-increases left and down
first ionization energy
-energy needed to remove one electron from an atom in its gaseous state
-increases up and to the right
-the ability of an element to attract electrons when the atom is a compound
-increases up and to the right
orbital (electron cloud)
-region of space where there is a 90% probability of finding an electron
what are the general rules of econfig?
1) Pauli Exclusion Principle
-each orbital (s, p, d, f) can hold two electrons w/ opposite spins
2) Aufbau Principle
-electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first
-"Lazy Tenant Rule"
3) Hund's Rule
-within a sublevel, place one electron per orbital before pairing them
-achieving the econfig of a noble gas
-metals tend to lose electrons, nonmetals tend to gain
-write each ion, cation first
-don't show charges in the final formula
-overall changes must equal zero
types of electron pairs
-bonding pairs: form bonds
-lone pairs: nonbonding electrons
rules for molec geometry
-the arrow points into any direction: polar
-molecule is A-symmetrical: polar
-arrows cancel out: nonpolar
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 2 Structure of the Atom
Chemistry Module 1 test
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Speech Study set
ANAT SPRING FINAL
ANAT CH 13 TEST
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Week 2: Self assessment test
Down To Business