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Which is NOT a basic method of cell to cell communication?
Cytoplasmic transfer of signals
Contact dependent signals
Nerve and blood transport signals
The cell that responds to it
The most significant difference between a paracrine and an autocrine is
Are released by neurons and affect only cells with specific receptors
Neurotransmitters and neurohormones both
Some cells lack the necessary receptors
Why do some normal cells fail to respond to a chemical signal?
Determine that cells response and may allow a particular ligand to bind
Receptor molecules on the surface of a cell
In all these places: outer cell membrane, cytosol, nucleus, cell surface
Receptor molecules are located
Is a second messenger that is involved in the release of calcium into the cytosol
ALL: specificity, nature of the signal, speed, duration of action
Which of the following are considered differences between endocrine and neural control systems
Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide
A few gases are known to act as signal molecules, including
Endothelial cells, endothelial derived relaxing factor
Before nitric oxide was identified, its action was observed in ___ and it was given the name ___
Can be caused by alterations in receptors or by problems with G protein or second messenger pathways
Lipids signal molecules that act in a paracrine fashion and combine with G protein coupled receptors include
Signal transduction, first messenger, second messenger
__ is a process by which an extracellular signal molecule, called the ___, activates a membrane receptor that in turn alters intracellular molecules, called the __, to create a response
A gap junction forms when opposing membrane spanning proteins called __ on two adjacent cells unite, creating a protein channel that is capable of opening and closing
A chemical that is secreted by a cell to act on cells in its immediate vicinity is called a
___ are molecules that bind to the receptor in such a way that they block the normal ligand from binding and turning the receptor on. As a result, the signal pathway remains inactive
If the concentration of an endocrine ligand decreases, the target cell may insert more receptors into the cell membrane in an attempt to keep its response at a normal level, in a process known as
The ___ link membrane receptors to either ion channels or to membrane enzymes located on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane
Many second messenger systems activate ___, enzymes that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein. The phosphorylation of proteins sets off a series of intracellular events that lead to the ultimate cellular response.
To maintain ___, the body uses a combination of simple diffusion across small distances; wide spread distribution of molecules through the circullatory system and rapid, specific delievery of messages by the nervous system
Most long distance communication between cells takes place through the ___ and ___ systems with their combination of chemical and electrical signals
An intracellular signal molecule that translates a signal from a neurotransmitter or hormone into an intracellular response is called a
The secretion of the hormone insulin in response to changes in blood glucose level s an example of a __ reflex
Homeostatic regulation usually involves a ___ that is sensitive to a particular stimulus and an ___ whose activity has an effect on the same stimulus
When epinephrine combines with alpha adrenergic receptors on smooth muscle in intestinal blood vessels, the blood vessels ___; however when epinephrine binds to beta-2 adrenergic receptors on certain skeletal muscle blood vessels, the vessels ___
The lipid solubility of the ligand
The most important factor determining which type of receptor a signal molecule will bind to is
Extracellular fluid and intracellular storage
When calcium becomes available inside a cell, it comes from
The binding of lipophilic messengers, such as steroid hormones, to their receptors triggers
The two hormones bind to different receptors and use a different second messenger
Both insulin and glucagon are peptide hormones that target liver cells. The response of the target cells to each of these two hormones is opposite. This information implies that
Homeostatic control that takes place at the tissue or cell by using paracrine or autocrine signals is called ___
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