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Biology: Anatomy and Physiology
Terms in this set (50)
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous.
Name the 4 types of tissue.
Covers the body and organs. Lines the inside of the body cavity and organs. Forms glands.
What does the Epithelial Tissue do?
i.e. bone and cartilage. Protects and supports the body. Stores energy. Ligaments and tendons join structures. Conducts blood throughout the body.
What does the Connective Tissue do?
Skeletal muscles move the body. The cardiac muscle moves blood through the vessels. Smooth muscle moves food through the digestive system.
What does the Muscle Tissue do?
Nerves communicate signals. The brain coordinates activities, interprets senses, controls reflexes, and carries out though, memory, and reasoning.
What does the Nervous Tissue do?
The skin protects the body, regulates temperature through sweat glands, and carries out sensation.
What is the integumentary system and what does it do?
Bones and muscles support, move, and protect the body.
What is the musculoskeletal system and what does it do?
Made up of the heart, blood, vessels, veins, arteries, and capillaries. Moves materials throughout the body.
What is the circulatory system and what does it do?
Made up of the mouth, stomach, gut, and glands. The mouth and stomach carry out mechanical digestion while saliva digests starch, HCL converts pepsinogen to pepsin, which breaks down proteins into peptides, and bile, which breaks down fats in fatty acids.
What is the digestive system and what does it do?
Made up of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Removes nitrogenous wastes (urea) from the blood.
What is the urinary or excretory system and what does it do?
Made up of glands that secrete hormones to control internal body functions.
What is the endocrine system and what does it do?
Made up of the trachea, bronchial tree, and the lungs that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
What is the respiratory system and what does it do?
Made up of the ovaries and testes. That produce gametes that come together to form offspring.
What makes up the reproductive system and what does it do?
Made of lymph nodes and ducts. Returns tissue fluid to the blood and fights infection.
What is the lymphatic system and what does it do
Made of scattered components that produce antibodies to fight infections.
What is the immune system and what does it do?
A stable and balanced internal environment necessary for life. It keeps the body's temperature at 98.6*F, the pH between 7.2 and 7.4, maintains a constant blood sugar level, and keeps the content of extracellular fluid and minerals balanced.
What is homeostasis?
Spongy texture with high surface area for more absorption of oxygen. A moist lining of mucus traps dust, pollen, and particles. Covered by hair-like extensions called cilia that move mucus upward to clear out the lungs.
What is the structure of the lungs?
Small air sacs.
What are alveoli?
How does oxygen pass from the alveoli to the blood and vise-versa?
The movement of gases from a high concentration to a low concentration across some type of barrier.
What is diffusion?
Thin walled tubes in the circulatory system.
What are capillaries?
It moves down and expands the chest cavity to pull air into the lungs.
What does the diaphragm do?
Poor lung or heart function makes the body breathe faster and work harder to bring in oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
What makes disease so harmful?
The heart, blood vessels, and blood.
What 3 parts make up the circulatory system?
Arteries, veins, and capillaries.
What does the term "blood vessels" encompass?
Carry blood away from the heartened provide strength for high pressure blood pumping.
What do arteries do?
Carry blood toward the heart.
What do veins do?
An extensive system that delivers nutrients directly to the cell and the location at which diffusion occurs.
What do capillaries do?
Red blood cells and plasma.
What makes up blood?
Liquid part of the blood that dissolves salts, sugars, proteins, and more.
What is plasma?
The red blood cells transport oxygen in hemoglobin, the white blood cells provide defense and immunity, and the platelets carry out blood clotting.
What structure lie in the blood besides plasma and what do they do?
How much blood is in the human body?
4 and right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle.
How many chambers does the heart have and what are they called?
Recieve blood in a collection chamber.
What do atria do?
Pump blood throughout the body.
What do ventricles do?
The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs while the left ventricle pumps blood throughout the rest of the body.
How do the right a left ventricle differ?
How is the heart controlled?
Systolic rate is when the heart is at peak pressure pumping blood throughout the body. Diastolic rate is when the heart is being filled with blood at minimum pressue
What do systolic and diastolic mean?
Describe the 2-part circulatory system.
Pushes food along by rhythmic waves of smooth muscle contraction in walls of digestive system.
What is peristalsis?
Muscular ring-like valves, regulate the passage of material between sections of digestive system.
What are sphincters?
Salivary glands, pancreas, liver & gall bladder which secret digestive enzymes and fluids.
List 4 accessory glands and their functions.
A flap of cartilage that keeps you from inhaling your food.
What is the epiglottis?
A tube of smooth muscle that moves food along to stomach by peristalsis.
What is the esophagus?
Begin mechanical digestion.
What do the teeth do?
Start chemical digestion.
What does saliva do?
An enzyme that digests starch.
What is amylase?
A slippery protein (mucus) that protects soft lining of digestive system and lubricates food for easier swallowing.
What is mucin?
A chemical that neutralizes acid to prevent tooth decay.
What is a buffer?
Kill bacteria that enter mouth with food.
What do anti-bacterial chemicals do?
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