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207 terms

bio test 3

STUDY
PLAY
Which of these are symbiotic associations?

symplast

apoplasts

Casparian strips

mycorrhizae

root hairs
mycorrhizae
In roots the _____ forces water and solutes to pass through the plasma membranes of _____ cells before entering the _____
transpiration ... endodermis ... xylem

Casparian strip ... endodermis ... phloem

xylem ... endodermis ... Casparian strip

Casparian strip ... ectoderm ... xylem

Casparian strip ... endodermis ... xylem
Casparian strip ... endodermis ... xylem
_____ provide(s) the major force for the movement of water and solutes from roots to leaves.
Transpiration

Translocation

Bulk flow
Transfer cells
Root pressure
transpiration
_____ bonds are responsible for the cohesion of water molecules.
Nonpolar covalent
Peptide
Polar covalent
Hydrogen
Ionic
hydrogen
_____ cells are the cells that regulate the opening and closing of stomata, thus playing a role in regulating transpiration.
Sieve-tube member
Guard
Companion
Casparian strip
Tracheid
guard
Which tissue acts as a filter on the water absorbed by root hairs?
Cortex
Vascular tissue
Epidermis
Endodermis
endodermis
True or false? Root pressure can move water a long distance up the xylem because of the higher water potential of the xylem in comparison to the water potential in the surrounding cells.
True
False
false
Which of the following statements about the distribution of sap throughout a plant is true?

The mechanism that explains the movement of sugars throughout a plant is called the pressure-flow hypothesis.

The driving force for sugar movement is transpiration.
The main component of phloem sap is glucose.
Companion cells form the conducting tissue for sap
The mechanism that explains the movement of sugars throughout a plant is called the pressure-flow hypothesis
Which term describes an area where sugars are used or stored?
Sink
Leaves
Stomata
Source
sink
Which of the following statements about xylem transport is true?
Water and minerals enter the xylem by diffusion.

All water transported by the xylem is used for photosynthesis in the leaves.

Water and minerals move through the root cortex into the
xylem and upward through the stem and into leaves.

The xylem cells that conduct water and minerals are alive
Water and minerals move through the root cortex into the
xylem and upward through the stem and into leaves.
What characterizes the rates of photosynthesis and transport in a plant on a dry cloudy day?

Both the photosynthesis and transpiration rates are high.

Both the photosynthesis and transpiration rates are low.

The photosynthesis rate is high and phloem transport rates are low.

The photosynthesis rate is low and stomata are open.
Both the photosynthesis and transpiration rates are low
True or false? The rate of sugar transport in a plant depends on the rate of photosynthesis, the rate of transpiration, and the difference in turgor pressure between the source and the sink.
True
False
false
Plants must always compromise between ________ and __________. (Concept 36.1)

Maximizing photosynthesis...minimizing water loss

Maximizing transport of minerals...minimizing transport of sugars

Maximizing access to light...minimizing intake of CO2

Maximizing water loss...minimizing H+ protons

Maximizing water absorption...minimizing leaf area
Maximizing photosynthesis...minimizing water loss
the proton pump_____

is a passive process

releases kinetic energy

uses the energy stored in ATP to produce a hydrogen ion gradient

operates by osmosis

uses the energy of a proton gradient to generate ATP
uses the energy stored in ATP to produce a hydrogen ion gradient
A plant cell placed in a solution with a lower water potential will _____. (Concept 36.2)

lose water and burst

gain water and plasmolyze

lose water and become turgid

lose water and plasmolyze

gain water and become turgid
lose water and plasmolyze
Which of the following is a correct statement about a difference between xylem and phloem transport? (Concepts 36.3 and 36.5)

Transpiration moves phloem sap but not xylem sap.

Xylem sap moves from sugar source to sink, but phloem sap does not.

Xylem sap moves up; phloem sap moves up or down.

Phloem carries water and minerals; xylem carries organic molecules.

Active transport moves xylem sap but not phloem sap.
Xylem sap moves up; phloem sap moves up or down.
A student is performing a chemical analysis of xylem sap. This student should not expect to find much _____. (Concept 36.3)

phosphorus

nitrogen

potassium
sugar
water
sugar
Which one of the following refers to the loss of water through the stomata in a plant's leaves? (Concept 36.4)
guttation

bulk flow

respiration

osmosis

transpiration
transpiration
Xerophytes minimize water loss by _____. (Concept 36.4)
reducing the thickness of the leaf cuticle

developing a Casparian strip between their leaves and stem

having leaves with a large surface-to-volume ratio

using the CAM pathway

using the C3 pathway
using the CAM pathway
The solute most abundant in phloem sap is _____. (Concept 36.5)
water
minerals
sugar
amino acids
hormones
sugar
In addition to transporting sugar, the phloem also _____. (Concept 36.6)
Transports plant RNA throughout the plant
Transports viral RNA throughout the plant
Transmits electrical signals.
Transports proteins throughout the plant.
All of the above
all the above
Movement of phloem sap from a source to a sink


may translocate sugars from the breakdown of stored starch in a root up to developing shoots.

occurs through the apoplast of sieve-tube elements.


depends on pumping water into sieve tubes at the source.

results mainly from diffusion.

depends on tension, or negative pressure potential.
may translocate sugars from the breakdown of stored starch in a root up to developing shoots.
A plant cell with a of -0.65 MPa maintains a constant volume when bathed in a solution that has a of -0.30 MPa and is in an open container. The cell has a

of 0 MPa.
of +0.65 MPa.
of +0.35 MPa.
of +0.30 MPa.
of -0.65 MPa.
of +0.35 MPa.
Which of the following is an adaptation that enhances the uptake of water and minerals by roots?

rhythmic contraction by cortical cells
pumping through plasmodesmata
active uptake
mycorrhizae
cavitation
mycorrhizae
Which of the following does not affect self-shading?

stem thickness
phyllotaxy
leaf orientation
leaf area index
self-pruning
stem thickness
Photosynthesis ceases when leaves wilt, mainly because

flaccid mesophyll cells are incapable of photosynthesis.
accumulation of CO2 in the leaf inhibits enzymes.
the chlorophyll of wilting leaves breaks down.
photolysis, the water-splitting step of photosynthesis, cannot occur when there is a water deficiency.
stomata close, preventing CO2 from entering the leaf
stomata close, preventing CO2 from entering the leaf
Stomata open when guard cells


close aquaporins, preventing uptake of water.

open because of a decrease in turgor pressure.

sense an increase in CO2 in the air spaces of the leaf.

become more turgid because of an addition of K+, followed by the osmotic entry of water.

accumulate water by active transport.
become more turgid because of an addition of K+, followed by the osmotic entry of water.
All of the following are plant adaptations to life on land except

collenchyma.
cuticle.
tracheids and vessels.
the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis.
root hairs.
the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis.
The ancestors of land plants were aquatic algae. Which of the following is not an evolutionary adaptation to life on land?

C3 photosynthesis
root hairs
guard cells
a waxy cuticle
xylem and phloem
c3 photosynthesis
Which structure or compartment is not part of the plant's apoplast?

the lumen of a sieve tube
the cell wall of a mesophyll cell
the cell wall of a root hair
the cell wall of a transfer cell
the lumen of a xylem vessel
the lumen of a sieve tube
Active transport of various materials in plants at the cellular level requires all of the following except

ATP.
a proton gradient.
transport proteins
a membrane potential.
xylem membranes.
xylem membrane
The release of CO2 into the soil results in the formation of _____.
carbonate ions and oxygen ions
hydrogen ions and carbonate ions
sodium ions and chloride ions
potassium ions and calcium ions
hydrogen ions and oxygen ions
hydrogen ions and carbonate ions
What process is the source of the CO2 that root hairs release into the soil?

photosynthesis
photolysis
photosynthesis and respiration
respiration
respiration and photolysis
respiration
The binding of H+ ions to soil particles _____.

displaces nitrates from soil particles
displaces mineral anions
is counteracted by acid precipitation
promotes the clumping of soil particles
displaces mineral cations
displaces mineral cations
Which of these ions is most likely to be leached from the soil?
chlorine ions
magnesium ions
calcium ions
potassium ions
iron ions
chlorine ions
Acid precipitation _____.
decreases soil fertility
increases soil fertility
has no effect on soil fertility
enhances the diffusion of cations into root hairs
promotes the attachment of anions to soil particles
decreases soil fertility
How do cations enter root hairs?
phagocytosis
endocytosis
osmosis
active transport
diffusion
diffusion
Topsoil _____. (Concept 37.1)

is a mixture of rock fragments, living organisms, and humus
is devoid of charged particles
does not retain water
is the relatively inert upper layer of soil
is uniform in texture
is a mixture of rock fragments, living organisms, and humus
Humus consists of _____. (Concept 37.1)

All of the organisms inhabiting the soil
Ground chickpeas and tahini.
Anions and cations found in the soil
Decomposing organic material
All of the above
Decomposing organic material
A major long-term problem resulting from excessive irrigation is the _____. (Concept 37.1)


erosion of fine soil particles
accumulation of salts in the soil
excessive cooling of the soil
drowning of crop plants
encroachment of water-consuming weeds
accumulation of salts in the soil
Mineral nutrients _____. (Concept 37.2)

contribute little to a plant's overall mass
are organic nutrients
are not essential to plant growth
enter plants via the stomata
include sugars
contribute little to a plant's overall mass
For an element to be considered a macronutrient _____. (Concept 37.2)
it must be available in large amounts
it should consist of three or more subunits
it must be required in relatively large amounts
it must be a large atom
it must have a high atomic mass
it must be required in relatively large amounts
Which of the following is a symptom of magnesium deficiency in plants? (Concept 37.2)
chlorosis
anemia
decreased transpiration
yellowing of younger leaves prior to yellowing of older leaves

plant overgrowth
chlorosis
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil _____. (Concept 37.3)

convert nitrate to ammonium
convert nitrates to N2
change ammonium into nitrates
convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia
use nitrates to make amino acids that plants can use
convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia
The relationship between legumes and Rhizobium is _____. (Concept 37.3)
mutualistic
parasitic
predatory
commensalistic
competitive
mutualistic
The sundew plant has to digest insects because _____. (Concept 37.3)
it's a method of self-cleaning to rid the plants of insects that get stuck in the plant

its flowers are fertilized by pollen in its digestive tract

it lives in a dry environment and uses moisture from the insects' bodies

it has lost the ability to perform photosynthesis

it obtains nitrogen from their bodies that it cannot get from the soil
it obtains nitrogen from their bodies that it cannot get from the soil
What are the largest particles formed from the breakdown of rock?
Clay
Gravel
Silt
Sand
gravel
True or false? Soil texture affects the amount of water available to plants; water is held best by clay and sand particles.
True
False
false
Which of the following steps occurs first during soil formation?
Weathering of solid rock occurs.
Mosses grow on the rock surface.
Lichens grow on the rock surface.
Organic material is added to the rock surface.
Weathering of solid rock occurs.
Why is the decomposition of dead organisms important for soil formation?

The process increases the amount of silt in the soil.
The process produces acidic compounds that dissolve the rock surface.
The process adds organic matter to the soil, which is necessary to support the growth of larger plants.
The process makes negatively charged ions more easily absorbed by plant roots.
The process adds organic matter to the soil, which is necessary to support the growth of larger plants
Which of the following statements about nutrient uptake by plants is true?

Root hairs increase the volume of roots for more efficient absorption of water and nutrients.

Plants require other elements besides carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen to grow, and they can obtain these in soil.

Positively charged ions remain dissolved in water and are easily absorbed by plant roots.

Plants can easily absorb mineral ions from soil with large amounts of organic matter.
Plants require other elements besides carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen to grow, and they can obtain these in soil
True or false? Plants use both active and passive transport processes to transport ions against their concentration gradients.
True
False
false
Why do fleshy fruits often have seeds with very tough seed coats?

So the seeds can adhere to passing animals

So the seeds can survive the mechanical forces and conditions in an animal's gut

So the seeds can extend the distance they travel by catching breezes

So the seeds can be dispersed by propulsion
So the seeds can survive the mechanical forces and conditions in an animal's gut
What characterizes the fruit of seeds that are dispersed by the wind?

They contain a large amount of sugar.
They are very fleshy.
They are large.
They have structures to extend the distance they travel on the wind.
They have structures to extend the distance they travel on the wind.
True or false? Fruits provide food to the developing plant.

True
False
false
Which part of a flower develops into the seed?

Endosperm cell
Ovule
Carpel
Pericarp
ovule
Which term describes the portion of a peach that can be eaten by humans?

Pericarp
Seed coat
Endosperm
Zygote
pericarp
True or false? The endosperm tissue that nourishes the developing plant has the same nutritional characteristics regardless of the plant species.

True
False
false
Which part of a plant attracts pollinators?

Stamen
Sepal
Carpel
Petals
petals
Which process involves the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma?


Pollination
Germination
Fertilization
Gametogenesis
pollination
True or false? The endosperm in a seed develops into the embryo.
True
False
false
Which term describes the male gametophytes of flowering plants?

Microsporocytes
Pollen grains
Micropyle
Megaspores
pollen grains
Which structure formed by the male gametophyte allows sperm to reach the ovary of a flowering plant?

Stigma
Micropyle
Anther
Pollen tube
pollen tube
How is fertilization in flowering plants different from fertilization in other plant groups?


One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with a polar nucleus to form a diploid cell that forms a nutrient-rich tissue.

One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote.

One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form a cell that develops into endosperm.

Two sperm nuclei fuse with a polar nucleus to form a diploid zygote.
One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form a cell that develops into endosperm
Which of the following statements about seed formation in a flowering plant is true?

The terminal cell formed from mitosis of the zygote divides to form a row of single cells that eventually forms the embryo.

Hypocotyls are the seed leaves of the embryonic plant.

The basal cell formed from mitosis of the zygote divides to form a globular mass that is the route for nutrient transfer to the developing embryo.

The swellings that develop into cotyledons are located at the end of the embryo on top of the row of single cells.
The swellings that develop into cotyledons are located at the end of the embryo on top of the row of single cells.
Meiosis will produce microspores in the _____.

anther
receptacle
petal
ovary
sepal
anther
What is endosperm?


tissue that develops into a protective seed coat surrounding the embryo

the female portion of a flowering plant

via cotyledons, a source of food for the embryo

the leaves that are a part of the embryo

the male portion of a flowering plant
via cotyledons, a source of food for the embryo
Which association below is correct?

dioecious ... separate female and male plants
unisexual flowers ... dioecious
monoecious ... bisexual flowers
anther ... egg production
bisexual flowers ... dioecious
dioecious ... separate female and male plants
In angiosperms, each pollen grain produces two sperm. What do these sperm do?

One fertilizes an egg, and the other is kept in reserve.

Each one fertilizes a separate egg cell.

One fertilizes an egg, and the other combines with two polar nuclei, which develop into stored food cells (endosperm).

Both sperm fertilize a single egg cell.

One fertilizes an egg, and the other fertilizes the fruit.
One fertilizes an egg, and the other combines with two polar nuclei, which develop into stored food cells (endosperm).
The germination of seeds _____.

depends on imbibition
depends on the growth of the embryo rupturing the seed
depends on maturation of the embryo

results in the cotyledon being the first structure to emerge from the seed

occurs after a certain species-specific period of time
depends on imbibition
Which of the following is an advantage of asexual reproduction in plants?

enhanced seed dispersal
no need for a pollinator
more robust offspring
genetic variation
enhanced survival of genetically favorable offspring
enhanced survival of genetically favorable offspring
Self-incompatibility _____.


helps maintain genetic variability in a population
is the rejection of a graft by a plant
works the same way in all plants

is based on the same mechanism of transplant rejection seen in animals

does not have potential agricultural applications
helps maintain genetic variability in a population
In grafting, the plant that provides the root system is the _____ and the twig is the _____.



callus ... protoplast
stock ... scion
radicle ... scion
hypocotyl ... epicotyl
gene donor ... gene recipient
stock ... scion
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in a pollen sac?

sporangia → meiosis → two haploid cells → meiosis → two pollen grains per cell

microsporocyte → meiosis → microspores → mitosis → two haploid cells per pollen grain

pollen grain → mitosis → microspores → meiosis → generative cell plus tube cell

two haploid cells → meiosis → generative cell → tube cell-fertilization → pollen grain


pollen grain → meiosis → two generative cells → two tube cells per pollen grain
microsporocyte → meiosis → microspores → mitosis → two haploid cells per pollen grain
Which of the following occurs in an angiosperm ovule?


The endosperm surrounds the megaspore mother cell.
A pollen tube emerges to accept pollen after pollination.
The nucleus forms a diploid egg.
A megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis.
An antheridium forms from the megasporophyte.
A megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis.
Where and by which process are sperm cells formed in plants?

mitosis in male gametophyte pollen tube
mitosis in the embryo sac
meiosis in anthers
meiosis in pollen grains
mitosis in the micropyle
mitosis in male gametophyte pollen tube
All of the following are primary functions of flowers except


photosynthesis.
sexual reproduction.
meiosis.
egg production.
pollen production.
photosynthesis.
Which of the following is one possible advantage of biofuels vs. oil?

Biofuels will eliminate the need for gasoline.

The amount of energy used to produce biofuels will be more than they yield.

The CO2 produced by biofuels can be pumped into depleted oil and natural gas fields, effectively sequestering the carbon.

They will not produce any greenhouse gas emissions.

The CO2 produced by biofuels will be absorbed by the crops used to produce them, creating a carbon-neutral cycle.
The CO2 produced by biofuels will be absorbed by the crops used to produce them, creating a carbon-neutral cycle.
Which example below is a concern related to the debate over plant biotechnology?


increased depletion of soil nutrients

transfer of genes to animal herbivores

introduced genes spreading into related wild species and leading to the creation of "superweeds"

increased reliance on petrochemical fertilizers

reducing availability of enhanced crops to third-world nations
introduced genes spreading into related wild species and leading to the creation of "superweeds"
Plant hormones act by directly affecting the activities of _____.

membranes
genes
signal transduction pathways
genes and enzymes
enzymes
signal transduction pathways
All of the following can function in signal transduction in plants except

calcium ions.
secondary messengers.
nonrandom mutations.
phytochrome.
receptor proteins
nonrandom mutations.
Evergreen trees lose their leaves _____.


steadily all year
in the spring
every winter
in the summer
every fall
steadily all year
The breakdown of chlorophyll reveals the _____ pigments of a leaf.

anthocyanin
carotenoid
melanin
phycoerythrin
xanthophylls
carotenoid
The formation of the abscission layer cuts off transport of substances to and from the leaf. As the concentration of sugar trapped within a leaf increases, _____ pigments are produced.

melanin
carotenoid
xanthophyll
phycoerythrin
anthocyanin
anthocyanin
The protective layer that forms between the abscission layer and the stem consists of _____.

densely colored cells filled with a waxy layer

irregularly shaped cells with very thick, lignified secondary walls

mycorrhizae

a layer of green palisade cells

weak, colorless, thin-walled cells
densely colored cells filled with a waxy layer
After leaf abscission, growth will resume from the _____.

abscission layer
petiole
protective layer
palisade layer
axillary bud
axillary bud
_____ trees lose their leaves in preparation for winter.


Conifer
Fir
Spruce
Pine
Deciduous
Deciduous
Which of the following seedlings will probably bend toward light?


one whose tip is cut off and topped by a gelatin block containing no plant substances

one whose tip is separated from its base by aluminum foil

one whose tip is cut off

one whose tip is covered with a black plastic cap

one whose tip is separated from its base by a gelatin block
one whose tip is separated from its base by a gelatin block
Which of these plant hormones is not typically considered a growth-promoting substance?


auxin
cytokinin
brassinosteroids
gibberellin
abscisic acid
abscisic acid
For a short-day plant, the _____ is critical in determining if flowering will occur.


maximum number of hours of darkness
minimum number of hour of light
maximum number of hours of light

None of these is correct, since short-day plants are also known as day-neutral plants.

minimum number of hours of darkness
minimum number of hours of darkness
For a long-day plant, the _____ is critical in determining if flowering will occur.


maximum number of hours of light
minimum number of hours of darkness
maximum number of hours of darkness
minimum number of hours of light

None of these is correct, since short-day plants are also known as day-neutral plants.
maximum number of hours of darkness
Day-neutral plants flower regardless of _____.


day length, night length, or photoperiod
day length
day length or night length
night length
photoperiod
day length, night length, or photoperiod
Which of these would inhibit flowering in a short-day plant with a critical night length of 12 hours?

12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, a flash of far-red light, 6 hours of dark

All of these regimens would inhibit flowering in a short-day plant with a critical night length of 12 hours.

12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, a flash of far-red light, a flash of red light, a flash of far-red light, 6 hours of dark

12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, 6 hours of dark

12 hours of light followed by 12 hours of dark
12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, 6 hours of dark
Which of these would stimulate flowering in a long-day plant with a critical night length of 12 hours?



12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, a flash of far-red light, a flash of red light, a flash of far-red light, 6 hours of dark

12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, 6 hours of dark

8 hours of light and 16 hours of dark

12 hours of light followed by 12 hours of dark

12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, a flash of far-red light, 6 hours of dark
12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, 6 hours of dark
The Pr form of the phytochrome pigment has maximum absorption in the _____ part of the spectrum.


ultraviolet
blue
far-red
yellow
red
red
A biological cycle with a period of about 24 hours is called _____.

photoperiodism
thigmotropism
a circadian rhythm
abscission
a biological clock
a circadian rhythm
The molecule most involved in the flowering process is _____.

ethylene
abscisic acid
beta-carotene
auxin
FT protein
FT protein
Most plants flower when _____.

the nights are the right length
the soil reaches a certain temperature
they deplete soil nutrients
the days are the right length
a certain number of days have passed since they last flowered
the nights are the right length
What is the physical basis of the phototropic response?


Cell shortening.
Cell transport.
Cell elongation.
Photosynthesis.
Cell elongation.
True or false? Auxin is asymmetrically distributed in shoots because the auxin on the side of the plant facing the source of light is destroyed.


True
False
false
Where does the majority of stem growth in a plant occur?

Axillary buds.
Apical meristem.
Lateral branches.
Both the apical meristem and lateral branches
Apical meristem.
Which of the following statements about hormones is true?

Hormones are small inorganic molecules.

Hormones are produced at the sites where they are needed.

Hormones are produced only in plants.

Hormones can function at very low concentrations.
Hormones can function at very low concentrations.
Which term describes the direction of auxin transport in a plant?

Multidirectional.
Polar.
Bidirectional.
Circular.
polar
How does auxin produce gravitropism in a plant that is placed on its side?

Auxin accumulates on the side of the leaf opposite the sunlight and inhibits elongation of cells in that region.

Auxin accumulates on the side of the leaf opposite the sunlight and stimulates elongation of cells in that region.

Auxin accumulates on the lower surface of the root and stimulates elongation of cells in that region.

Auxin accumulates on the lower surface of the root and inhibits elongation of cells in that region.
Auxin accumulates on the lower surface of the root and inhibits elongation of cells in that region.
How does auxin produce phototropism?

Auxin accumulates in cells on the side of the plant facing the source of light and stimulates their elongation.

Auxin accumulates in cells on the side of the plant opposite the source of light and stimulates their elongation.

Auxin accumulates in cells on the side of the plant facing the source of light and causes them to shorten.

Auxin accumulates in cells on the side of the plant opposite the source of light and causes them to shorten.
Auxin accumulates in cells on the side of the plant opposite the source of light and stimulates their elongation.
Thigmotropism is a movement in response to _____.

light
temperature
gravity
touch
chemicals
touch
Which one of the following is a response in plants to a water deficit?

reduction in the rate of transpiration
inhibiting the abscission of older leaves
guttation
inhibiting root growth
increasing the synthesis and release of auxin
reduction in the rate of transpiration
True or false? Plants do not produce many defenses against pathogens unless they are threatened because defensive structures and compounds require much energy and materials to produce and maintain.

True
False
true
What is the initial localized response of a resistant plant to pathogen invasion?

Systemin production.
Hypersensitive response.
Plant death.
Systemic acquired resistance.
Hypersensitive response.
Which compound is not used in the localized response to pathogen invasion?

Phytoalexins.
Proteinase inhibitors.
Nitric oxide.
Salicylic acid.
Salicylic acid.
Which of the following statements about systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants is false?


A suite of genes called the pathogenesis-related loci is expressed in response to a signal from an attacked leaf.

SAR results in the production of protective compounds distant from the site of initial infection.

Hormones produced by an attacked leaf carry a signal to the rest of the plant.

Salicylic acid is the only compound involved in SAR signaling.
Salicylic acid is the only compound involved in SAR signaling.
How does a plant defend against herbivores?



Plant cells at the site of attack are killed to starve the herbivore of nutrients.

Plant cells produce salicylic acid to warn the rest of the plant about the attack.

The plant produces molecules that stimulate the herbivore's digestive enzymes.

The hormone systemin is produced at the site of injury and signals the plant to produce proteinase inhibitors
The hormone systemin is produced at the site of injury and signals the plant to produce proteinase inhibitors
Strains of pathogens that mildly harm, but do not kill, the host plant are termed _____.

avirulent
virulent
herbivores
salicylic
jasmonic
avirulent
Which term describes a mechanism by which the internal conditions of an organism are kept at set values without regard to the external conditions?


Negative feedback.
Thermoregulation.
Regulatory homeostasis.
Conformational homeostasis.
Regulatory homeostasis.
Which of the following actions is not a function of the epithelium?


Regulates the excretion of waste.

Controls the exchange of nutrients between the internal and external environments.

Creates an internal environment that is different from the external environment.

Allows the internal environment to alter its conditions to match those of the external environment.
Allows the internal environment to alter its conditions to match those of the external environment.
True or false? Organisms must maintain homeostasis because optimal enzyme activity is achieved within a very narrow range of conditions.

True
False
true
Which component of a homeostatic system sends instructions based on sensory information?

Integrator.
Sensor.
Effector.
Set point.
integrator
Which of the following actions acts to warm a homeothermic body?

Panting.
Sweating.
Dilating blood vessels.
Shivering.
Shivering.
Which of the following statements describes a negative feedback response?


After a meal, blood sugar levels in the body rise; insulin is secreted to lower blood sugar levels.


The arrival of platelets at a wound site stimulates the recruitment of more platelets to form a clot.

A person who loses 3 pounds continues to diet to lose an additional 10 pounds.


The onset of contractions during childbirth stimulates the release of a hormone that stimulates further contractions.
After a meal, blood sugar levels in the body rise; insulin is secreted to lower blood sugar levels.
How does connective tissue differ from the other three major tissue types?


Connective tissue often consists of relatively few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix.

Connective tissue consists of contractile proteins.

Connective tissue consists of cells capable of transmitting electrical impulses.

There are three types of connective tissue.

Connective tissue is found lining body surfaces.
Connective tissue often consists of relatively few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix.
Which of these describes loose connective tissue?



It is a loose weave of fibers that functions as a packing material.

It is composed of many fibers that connect bone to bone and muscle to bone.

It is a rigid material that provides structural support.

It transports nutrients and gases from one part of the body to another.

It plays a role in padding, insulation, and energy storage.
It is a loose weave of fibers that functions as a packing material.
Cartilage is found _____.


surrounding organs such as the kidneys

in the heart

at the ends of bones such as the femur

covering the surface of your body

connecting one bone to another
at the ends of bones such as the femur
_____ is the connective tissue specialized for transport.

Bone
Blood
Adipose tissue
Muscle tissue
Cartilage
blood
What type of epithelium would you expect to find covering a surface subject to physical forces?

simple epithelium
squamous epithelium
stratified epithelium
simple cuboidal cells
columnar epithelium
stratified epithelium
What type of epithelial tissue, found in the intestines, absorbs nutrients?


stratified cuboidal epithelium
simple cuboidal cells
simple columnar epithelium
stratified columnar epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
simple columnar epithelium
Which of these tissues, found in the lungs, permits gas exchange by diffusion?

stratified squamous epithelium
simple cuboidal cells
stratified cuboidal epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
simple columnar epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
What type of epithelial tissue lines kidney tubules?

stratified squamous epithelium
stratified cuboidal epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
simple cuboidal cells
stratified transitional epithelium
simple cuboidal cells
A neuron consists of _____.

a cell body only
dendrites only
axons only
dendrites, a cell body, and axons
striations
dendrites, a cell body, and axons
Nervous tissue functions _____.


as a physical barrier to the invasion of pathogens
to physically move the body
to sense stimuli
to physically support the body
in the absorption of nutrients
to sense stimuli
What type of muscle is responsible for contractions of the digestive tract and arteries?


smooth muscle
skeletal muscle
striated muscle
voluntary muscle
cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle is the only muscle composed of _____ fibers.

branched
unstriated
unbranched and cylindrical
spindle shaped
striated
branched
_____ muscle is attached to bones.

Smooth
Involuntary
Cardiac
Branched
Skeletal
Skeletal
Which of the following is a correct statement about an organism and its environment?


Animals isolated from their environments live longer than those exchanging matter with the environment.

The gastrovascular cavity provides the nutrient exchange surface in mammals.

An animal is a closed system that is separate and distinct from its environment.

The interstitial fluid is the exchange medium between body cells and the circulatory system in vertebrate animals.

None of the choices is correct.
The interstitial fluid is the exchange medium between body cells and the circulatory system in vertebrate animals.
Homeostasis is the _____.


maintenance of a relatively constant and optimal internal environment

correlation of structure and function

cooperation of body parts to form tissues, organs, and systems

idea that all vertebrates are built in a similar way

exchange of materials with the surrounding environment
maintenance of a relatively constant and optimal internal environment
Negative feedback is a method of homeostatic control that _____.

increases the speed and rapidity of negative responses to environmental stimuli

operates independently of most signaling mechanisms

promotes decreases in metabolic rate rather than increases

ensures that conditions in an organism do not vary too much above or below their set points


produces a response by lowering the set point of an organism's metabolism
ensures that conditions in an organism do not vary too much above or below their set points
In a physiological system operating with positive feedback, _____.


a stimulus will initiate a response that returns the system to near its initial parameters

a stimulus will prevent a small change from becoming too large

only an effector and control center are necessary to complete the control system

the range of acceptable values for a given parameter will be narrower than if the system were regulated by negative feedback

a change in a variable will amplify rather than reverse the change
a change in a variable will amplify rather than reverse the change
Which of the following primarily involves heat transfer by convection?

The water in the lake is so cold that your legs become numb.

After sunset, you can feel heat from the warm pavement.

You roll down the car window to allow the cool breeze to blow through.

As you lie on the sand, you can feel the sun's warm rays on your skin.


You sweat profusely as you mow the lawn on a hot summer day.
You roll down the car window to allow the cool breeze to blow through.
A countercurrent heat exchanger enables an animal to _____.

reduce the loss of body heat to the environment
increase heat loss by evaporation
produce more heat when needed
absorb heat from the environment
slow metabolism when food is not available
reduce the loss of body heat to the environment
Bats and hummingbirds are examples of _____.

endotherms that are also homeotherms
endotherms that are also ectotherms
endotherms that are also poikilotherms
ectotherms that are also poikilotherms
ectotherms that are also homeotherms
endotherms that are also poikilotherms
Metabolic rate is _____.


the total amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time

determined when the organism is vigorously exercising after consuming a fatty meal

directly proportional to body size

the amount of heat gained by an animal in a unit of time

typically higher in an ectothermic animal than in an endothermic one
the total amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
Choose the list that correctly describes metabolic rates, corrected for body mass, from lowest to highest.

frog, rabbit, snake
fish, dog, mouse
hummingbird, dog, mouse
dog, cat, mouse, salamander
gazelle, lion, elephant
fish, dog, mouse
Which structure is not part of the alimentary canal?

Stomach.
Mouth.
Esophagus.
Salivary glands.
Salivary glands.
Which process is not required for an animal to obtain energy from food?

Ingestion.
Excretion.
Digestion.
Secretion.
Excretion.
True or false? One advantage of having a tube-like digestive tract is that digestion of all compounds can take place simultaneously down the tract.

True
False
false
True or False? The liver is a component of the alimentary canal.

True
False
false
Choose the correct statement from the list below.


Protein digestion begins in the small intestine with the activation of trypsinogen to trypsin

The stomach has a high pH which allows for the activation of digestive enzymes.

Proteins that are consumed in the diet are absorbed as individual amino acids following digestion.

Mechanical digestion of proteins is more important than chemical digestion.
Proteins that are consumed in the diet are absorbed as individual amino acids following digestion.
Choose the correct statement from the list below.


Carbohydrate absorption occurs primarily in the large intestine.

Bile salts from the gall bladder are essential to the digestion of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates are fully digested after passage through the stomach .

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase.
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase.
Choose the correct statement from the list below.

Fats are fully digested after passage through the mouth and stomach.

Free fatty acid absorption occurs in the small intestine

Fat digestion begins in the stomach with the activation of trypsinogen to trypsin.

Bile salts from the pancreas are essential to the digestion of fats
Free fatty acid absorption occurs in the small intestine
Secretin stimulates the _____ to secrete _____.

pancreas ... bicarbonate
pancreas ... pancreatic enzymes
small intestine ... disaccharidases
stomach ... bicarbonate
liver ... liver enzymes
pancreas ... bicarbonate
Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the _____ to secrete _____.

pancreas ... bicarbonate
pancreas ... pancreatic enzymes
small intestine ... disaccharidases
stomach ... bicarbonate
liver ... liver enzymes
pancreas ... pancreatic enzymes
The acidity of the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.

cholecystokinin, or CCK
histones
TSH
secretin
pepsin
secretin
The presence of fatty acids and amino acids in the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.

cholecystokinin, or CCK
histones
insulin
secretin
thyroxine
cholecystokinin, or CCK
Bile is produced by the _____ and stored by the _____ until it is secreted into the small intestine.

liver ... gall bladder
pancreas ... gall bladder
liver ... pancreas
gall bladder ... liver
esophagus ... stomach
liver ... gall bladder
When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.


glycerol only
fatty acids only
monosaccharides
amino acids
both glycerol and fatty acids
amino acids
When digested, fats are broken down into _____.

glycerol only
fatty acids only
monosaccharides
amino acids
both glycerol and fatty acids
both glycerol and fatty acids
Starch is a type of _____.

disaccharide
nucleotide
polysaccharide
fatty acid
monosaccharide
polysaccharide
Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested.

starches
fats
proteins
fructoses
nucleic acids
fructoses
Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?

bile
disaccharidases
lipase
amylase
nucleases
amylase
Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.

lactose
glucose
sucrose
fructose
maltose
maltose
Protein digestion begins in the _____.

mouth
esophagus
stomach
small intestine
large intestine
stomach
What is the main component of gastric juice?

inactive pepsin
amylase
hydrochloric acid
water
bile
water
_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____.


Lipase ... small intestine ... fats ... small intestine
Trypsin ... pancreas ... fats ... small intestine
Nucleases ... pancreas ... nucleic acids ... stomach
Amylase ... salivary glands ... starch ... stomach
Bile ... liver ... fats ... small intestine
Bile ... liver ... fats ... small intestine
What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?
hydrochloric acid
carbonic acid
sulfuric acid
acetic acid
sodium hydroxide
hydrochloric acid
To survive, all animals must have _____. (Overview)

a constant supply of nutrients from the environment
an oral cavity
a complete digestive system
the ability to swallow food
a way to obtain and digest nutrients
a way to obtain and digest nutrients
Which one of the following is an essential nutrient for a human? (Concept 41.1)
calcium
linoleic acid, a fatty acid
ascorbic acid, a vitamin
sodium
All of the above are essential nutrients
All of the above are essential nutrients
For the body to absorb and use _____, they must be broken down by hydrolysis into _____. (Concept 41.2)

monosaccharides ... starch
glycerol and fatty acids ... fats
monosaccharides ... disaccharides
proteins ... amino acids
monosaccharides ... polysaccharides
proteins ... amino acids
Which of the following lists the four stages of food processing in the order that they naturally occur? (Concept 41.2)


digestion, ingestion, absorption, elimination
ingestion, digestion, elimination, absorption
ingestion, absorption, elimination, digestion
ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
absorption, digestion, ingestion, elimination
ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
How does a gastrovascular cavity differ from an alimentary canal? The gastrovascular cavity _____. (Concept 41.2)


absorbs food molecules but does not produce hydrolytic enzymes
has only a single opening
functions in digestion but not absorption
stores food but does not digest it
is the location for extracellular digestion
has only a single opening
Which one of the following correctly represents the order in which food coming into the body passes through the structures of the digestive system? (Concept 41.3)

pharynx, small intestine, large intestine, stomach
esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine
pharynx, stomach, esophagus, small intestine
pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
esophagus, stomach, pharynx, small intestine
pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Breakdown of carbohydrates first begins in which one of the following organs? (Concept 41.3)

small intestine
large intestine
stomach
mouth
pancreas
mouth
The cardiac sphincter surrounds the cardiac orifice, the upper opening into the stomach. If this sphincter failed to properly constrict, there might be a problem with _____. (Concept 41.3)


the loss of control of defecation

rapid emptying from the small intestine into the large intestine

rapid emptying from the stomach into the small intestine

movement of the bolus into the trachea rather than the esophagus

regurgitation of food into the esophagus, commonly called "heartburn"
regurgitation of food into the esophagus, commonly called "heartburn"
Which one of the following statements is correct? (Concept 41.4)

The teeth of herbivores tend to be sharper than the teeth of carnivores.

Deer, cattle, and sheep are ruminants.

Animals typically produce enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose.

The intestines of carnivores tend to be longer than the intestines of herbivores of similar overall body size.

Many carnivorous vertebrates house large populations of symbiotic bacteria and protists in special fermentation chambers in their alimentary canals
Deer, cattle, and sheep are ruminants.
Which one of the following statements is correct? (Concept 41.5)

Energy in the form of glucose is stored in human liver and muscle cells.

Obesity contributes to the most common type of diabetes.

A gram of protein stores about twice as much energy as an equal amount of fat.

The production of glucose accounts for the largest fraction of the energy budget of most animals.

When fewer calories are taken in than are expended, the body first draws upon its reserves of fat in the liver.
Obesity contributes to the most common type of diabetes.
The "essential nutrients" for proper human nutrition include _____.

glucose
calcium, sodium, potassium, and other minerals
active enzymes from plants and/or animals
all of the amino acids
cellulose
calcium, sodium, potassium, and other minerals
Birth defects of the neural tube in humans _____.


can be prevented by ingestion of more vitamin A during the periconception interval

are not affected by nutritional considerations during pregnancy

result from excess sodium in the pregnant woman's diet

are typically seen in 10-20% of male babies born in well-developed countries

are reduced from about 6% without folic acid supplements in the periconception interval to about 1% when the supplements were taken
are reduced from about 6% without folic acid supplements in the periconception interval to about 1% when the supplements were taken
Different types of food are eaten by various groups of animals, but it is usually true that _____.


animals typically produce enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose

the teeth of herbivores tend to be sharper than the teeth of carnivores

cellulose digestion in ruminant mammals occurs before the ingested foods reach the small intestine

many carnivorous vertebrates house large populations of symbiotic bacteria and protists in special fermentation chambers in their stomachs

the intestines of carnivores tend to be longer than the intestines of herbivores of similar overall body size
cellulose digestion in ruminant mammals occurs before the ingested foods reach the small intestine
Among humans, increased interest in food intake normally occurs _____.

via chemical signals related to the amount of glucose stored in the liver and muscle cells

via chemical signals released when the stomach is empty

via chemical signals related to the amount of protein stores in the liver

when fewer calories are taken in than are expended, but only after the body depletes its reserves of fat in the liver

only after the production of glucose in the liver can no longer meet metabolic needs
via chemical signals released when the stomach is empty
True or false? The lungs of humans form from the embryonic foregut.

True
False
true
True or false? The pressure inside the human chest cavity is always positive, so the lungs stay relatively inflated even upon exhalation.
True
False
false
Which lung structure is a tiny sac that functions as an interface between air and blood?

Capillary.
Epithelium.
Alveolus.
Diaphragm.
Alveolus
True or false? The driving force for the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin into tissues is the difference in PCO2 levels between the blood and body tissues.
True
False
false
How is most carbon dioxide transported from tissues to the lungs?

As protons ().
As bicarbonate ions ().
As carbonic acid.
As carbon dioxide gas.
As bicarbonate ions ().
Which of the following statements about the oxygen-hemoglobin interaction is true?


Each hemoglobin molecule can bind one oxygen molecule.

The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the binding of other oxygen molecules.

The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the unloading of the oxygen molecules that are already bound.

The oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is exponential, which means that hemoglobin can respond quickly to small changes in oxygen demand.
The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the binding of other oxygen molecules.
Arteries carry blood _____.

away from capillaries
away from the heart and away from the lungs
to the heart and away from the lungs
to the heart only
away from the heart only
away from the heart only
Blood returns to the heart via the _____.

aorta
pulmonary arteries
pulmonary veins
aorta and pulmonary arteries
aorta and pulmonary veins
pulmonary veins
From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.

right atrium
left atrium
aorta
capillaries of the lungs
posterior vena cava
left atrium
From the anterior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.

right atrium
left atrium
aorta
capillaries of the lungs
posterior vena cava
right atrium
From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.

right atrium
left atrium
aorta
capillaries of the lungs
posterior vena cava
posterior vena cava
What is the function of a circulatory system?

It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.

It exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the outside air.

It acts as a reservoir for the storage of blood.

It is the site of blood cell production.
It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.
Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?



The circuits increase the amount of surface area available for the diffusion of gases and nutrients in the body.

The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.

Blood is pumped to the lungs to be oxygenated before being pumped to the rest of the body.

Land vertebrates are bigger and require more tubing to reach all areas of the body.
The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.
True or false? The circulatory systems of land-dwelling vertebrates are composed of two pumping circuits: the systemic circulation, which is a lower-pressure circuit to the lung, and the pulmonary circulation, which is a higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body.
True
False
false
What is the function of the left ventricle?


It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.

It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.

It receives deoxygenated blood from the lungs.

It pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary circulation.
It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
Which of the following statements about blood circulation in the body is true?

During one cardiac cycle, the two ventricles contract first, and then the two atria contract.

Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.

Deoxygenated blood flowing through the pulmonary veins is carried to the right atrium.

As the right ventricle contracts, it sends oxygenated blood through the aorta to all tissues of the body
Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.
Which event occurs first during diastole?

The atria and ventricles contract simultaneously.

The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.

The atria contract while blood flows into the relaxed ventricles.

Blood flows into the relaxed atria while the ventricles contract
The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.
G

Which event of the cardiac cycle occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured?



The atria and ventricles contract simultaneously.

The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.

The atria contract while blood flows into the relaxed ventricles.

The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.
The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.
Voice sounds are produced by the _____.

trachea
diaphragm
bronchioles
larynx
lungs
larynx
The primary functions of the _____ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.

lungs
trachea
bronchus
nasal cavity
alveoli
nasal cavity
In which of the following animals are the blood and the interstitial fluid considered to be the same body fluid?

grasshoppers
fishes
jellyfish and cnidarians
dogs
sparrows
grasshoppers
Which statement regarding the mammalian heart is correct?

When the right atrium contracts, it forces blood into the left atrium.

Blood is pumped from the heart via the atria.

In the adult heart, blood in the right chambers of the heart cannot enter the left chambers without passing through the lungs.

Oxygen-loaded blood moves only through the right side of the heart.

Blood arrives at the heart via the ventricles.
In the adult heart, blood in the right chambers of the heart cannot enter the left chambers without passing through the lungs.
Which statement about human blood vessels is correct?


Arteries carry oxygenated blood; veins carry oxygen-poor blood.

Arteries carry blood toward the atria of the heart.

The pulmonary artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.

Veins transport blood from the heart to the capillaries.

Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
Which of the following organisms has no specialized respiratory structures?

salmon
crabs
ants
earthworms
alligators
earthworms
An advantage of gas exchange in water, compared with gas exchange in air, is that _____.

water is easier to move over the respiratory surface

ventilation requires less energy in water

the fine structure of the gas exchange surface is supported by being in direct contact with the moving respiratory medium

the respiratory surface does not have to be as extensive in water

water usually contains a higher concentration of oxygen than air
the fine structure of the gas exchange surface is supported by being in direct contact with the moving respiratory medium
The smallest airway through which inspired air passes before gas exchange occurs in the mammalian lungs is the _____.

trachea
pharynx
larynx
bronchus
bronchiole
bronchiole
_____ in carbon dioxide in your red blood cells, which causes _____ in pH, causes your breathing to speed up.


A decrease ... a drop
An increase ... a drop
A decrease ... a rise
An increase ... a rise

Actually, it is the rise and fall of oxygen, not carbon dioxide, that controls breathing.
An increase ... a drop
The amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin _____.

is called the Bohr shift
increases as the pH of tissues decreases

increases in the presence of high concentrations of oxygen

decreases in the presence of high concentrations of oxygen

increases with increasing acidity at the tissue level
increases in the presence of high concentrations of oxygen
By picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____.

acidic
basic
thick
low in oxygen concentration
red
acidic
In the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues _____.

as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)
combined with hemoglobin
by the trachea
water (H2O)
dissolved in blood plasma
combined with hemoglobin