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Tidal Volume

Respiratory Volume; the lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inspiration and expiration

Expiratory Reserve Volume

The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after tidal expiration.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

The amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume.

Vital Capacity

The total amount of exchangeable air.

Total Lung Capacity


Residual Volume

Allows gas exchange to go on continuously even between breaths and helps to keep the alveoli open. Air still remaining in the lungs that cannot be voluntarily expelled.


Deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues.


If breathing stops for an extended time and there is bluish discoloration of the skin.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

A nonreversible lung disease that is a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis; usually patients have been heavy cigarette smokers.


The alveoli enlarge as the walls of adjacent chambers break through, and chronic inflammation promotes fibrosis of the lungs.

Chronic Bronchitis

The mucosa of the lower respiratory passages becomes severely inflamed and produces excessive amounts of mucus.

Lung Cancer

Carcinoma of the lungs; one of the commonest forms of cancer.

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