Terms in this set (97)
commissural fiber tracts of the telencephalon
associate fibre tracts of the telencephalon
U (you) Are SICk
• Uncinate fasiculus
• Arcuate fibers
• Superior longitudinal fasiculus
• Inferior longitudinal fasiculus
parts of the mesencephalon.
parts that develop from the metencephalon.
list :primary brain vesicles
secondary brain vesicles and their cavities
a) primary brain vesicles
b) secondary brain vesicles and their cavities
telencephalon! ! lateral ventricles
diencephalon!! ! third ventricle
mesencephalon! ! cerebral aqueduct of sylvius -> midbrain
metencephalon! ! 4th ventricle -> pons and cerebellum
myelencephalon! ! 4th ventricle -> medulla oblongat
structures that form the anterior wall of the 3rd ventricle
Columns of the Fornix
a)Define the term "lamina choroidea"
b)Where is it located in the brain?
The tela choroidea (which is the lining of the choroid plexus) is made up of two parts.
A connective tissue layer (pia matter) and an ependymal cell layer.
This ependymal cell layer is called lamina choroidea. It is a simple columnar
epithelium and lines the brain ventricle and is in contact with the CSF
where the choroid plexus is
• lateral ventricles : in the medial wall
• 3rd ventricle : roof
• 4th ventricle : posterior part of the roof
Define the location and Brodmann's number of
a)the Broca's speech area
b) primary auditory cortex.
• triangular and opercular parts of inferior frontal gyrus
Where are the places of bony attachment of the
a) falx cerebri
b) tentorium cerebelli
a) falx cerebri
• crista galli of the ethmoid bone
• along the edges of the groove for the superior saggital sinus
• Internal occipital protuberance
b) tentorium cerebelli
rostrally : clinoid processes
rostrolateraly : petrous portion of the temporal bone
caudolaterally : inner surface of the occipital bone along the groove for transve
Where is the stria terminalis located?
• It's a major output flow from the amygdaloid body
• runs: on the ventricular surface of the thalamus
• from the amygdaloid complex -> Tuberal nuclear region of the hypothalam
***Where is the stria medullaris located?
located on the medial side of the thalamus. It is a
bundle of fibers that run along the roof of the third ventricle and
then terminate in the habenula"
Where is the induceum griceum located?
• it is a little bit of the cortex of the gray matter of the brain in the depth of the
longitudinal cerebral fissure
• aka supracallosal gyrus so it makes a lot of sense that it is above the corpus
• consists of a thin layer of gray matter in contact with the dorsal surface of the
corpus callosum = it lies above it and lines it from above
• lateral to it is the gray matter of the cingulate gyrus
What is the origin and termination
O: Hippocampus ! ! I: mammillary body
b) stria terminalis
O: Amygdaloid body I: tuberal region of medial hypothalamus
. List the histological layers of the neocortex from the outer surface to the
***Name cell types in the cerebellar cortex
• basket cells
• stellate cells
• purkinje cells
• golgi cells
List five major cell types of the cerebellar cortex, indicate their excitatory or
inhibitory character and their locations in the cortical layers!
1. Stellate cells molecular layer! ! - inhibitory
2.basket cell! ! molecular layer! ! - inhibitory
3. Purkinje cells purkinje cell layer! ! - inhibitory
4. Golgi cell! ! granular layer! ! - inhibitory
5. Granular cells granular layer! ! - excitatory
Name afferent pathways of the neostriatum. Name also the major
neurotransmitters that are released by them.
Fibers from cerebral cortex -> cortico-striatal - glutamate
fibers coming from sub.negra -> nigro-striatal !! - dopamine
Name 2 efferent pathways of the neostriatum. Name also the
neurotransmitters that are released by the axon terminals of these pathways.
To the globus pallidus -> striato-pallidal projections -GABA
To substantia nigra !! -> striato-nigral projections -GABA
Name the afferent fibre tracts of the cerebellar cortex that arise from the
brainstem and terminate with
c) Describe also the method & location of how the mossy & climbing fibres
terminate in the cerebellar cortex.
• ponto - cerebellar
• reticulo - cerebellar
• vestibulo - cerebellar
• olivo - cerebellar tract
terminate in the stratum granulosum forming a
wide arborization pattern and establishing synaptic contacts with
many dendrites of granule cells
terminate in the stratum moleculare forming a
narrow arborization pattern and establishing synaptic contacts usually with
one purkinje cell
Name the neural elements that participate in the formation of the cerebellar
granule cell dendrites (post-synaptic)
golgi cell axon terminals (pre- synaptic)
mossy fibers (pre synaptic)
. List the cerebellar efferent pathways.
trough Inferior cerebellar peduncle:
• cerebello - vestibular tract -> to the vestibular nucleus
• cerebello - olivary tract ->to the inferior olivary nucleus
• cerebello - reticular tract ->
mn: v o r
trough middle cerebellar peduncle there are none efferent (only afferent)
trough the superior cerebellar peduncle:
• cerebello -rubral fibers -> red nucleus
• dentato -thalamic fibers -> VA and VL of thalamus
• fastigio -reticular fibers ->
Name the symptoms of cerebellar damage.
Vertigo! ! ! ! dizziness
Ataxia!! ! ! ! bad coordination of movement
Nystagmus! ! ! ! eyes "tremble"
Intention tremor! ! ! tremor
Slurred (or Staccato) speech speech disorder
Hypotonia! ! ! ! reduced muscle tone
Exagerrated broad based gait
Dysmetria! ! ! ! inability to estimate distances
Name 3 non-pyramidal types of neurons in the cerebral cortex
• Fusiform cells
• Stellate cells
• Horizontal cells of cajal
What are the commissural pathways of the cerebrum?
mn: CHA (computer human anatomy)
Describe the origin of the neural crest. List the cell types developed from it.
• Develops from the neural fold (ectoderm).
• located dorsolateral to the neural tube
gives rise to:
Dorsal root ganglia
Enteric neurons and glia
a) the ultrastructural composition of the Nissl-substance
b) the parts where they are present
a.• Rough endoplasmic reticulum in granular arrangement.
• Consists of endoplasmic reticulum. ribosomes and mRNA
b.in the perikaryon (cell body) and proximal dendritic processes
***What is the difference between the axon hillock and initial axon segment?
What are the features in which the membrane covering the initial axon
segment differs from the other parts of the cell membrane?
• The axon hillock is a conically shaped region from which the axon extends
• the axon hillock has parallelly arranged arranged microtubules and has no nissl
• initial axon segment is where the first action potential is generated. It has a bundle of
microtubules, Ca channels and no scwhann cells
List a) the types of all glial cells in the CNS and the embryonic germ layers
E Ependymal cells - ectoderm
M Microglial cells - mesoderm
O Oligodendrocytes - ectoderm
A Astrocytes! ! - ectoderm
. List the major functions of the glial cells of the CNS
• Structural Support
• Mechanical support
• Insulate electrically
• Keep a constant Electrical environment
• Take up neurotransmitters
Make a drawing of a peripheral nerve.
What is the histological structure and function of a perineurim?
1) Is a specialized connective tissue surrounding a nerve fascicle
2) It serves as metabolically active diffusion barrier that contributes to the formation of
a blood-nerve barrier which maintains the ionic isolation of the nere fiber
3) it serves for active transport of substances across it
4) may be one or more cell layers thick depending on the nerve diameter
5) it has a basal lamina on both surfaces
6) consisting of layers of flattened cells and collagenous connective tissue
7) plays a protective role
3: active transport
4: one or more cells
5: basal lamina on both sides
. List the layers that separate the lumen of the blood vessels from the nervous
tissue in the CNS. Which layer forms the blood brain barrier?
• tight junctions between endothelial cells <------- the main contributor to BBB
• basement membrane of endothelial cells
• glial limiting membrane (made by the glial processes of the astrocytes)
What are the major differences between the fast and slow axonal transport
Name the macromolecules that play a substantial role in the fast axonal
Define the term "histodynamic polarity"
-List the cell compartments that can be distinguished from each other in the sense
of dynamic polarity.
Parts of the neurons that are specialized for specific functions, that can be distinguished
from one-another and can have different morphological characteristics to execute their
-you can have:
• receptive segment (PNS: peripheral part of axon. CNS: somatodendritic part)
• transduction segment (where you make the first AP)
• conduction segment (where the AP runs)
• synaptic segment (where the nerve will terminate)
List three types of neurotransmitters
1. Amino acids
-glutamate, aspartate, GABA
2. Biogenic amines
-ACh, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, serotonin
-Vasopressin,VIP, substance P
Define the term ionotropic neurotransmitter. List at least 3 ionotropic
"a neurotransmitter that will bind to an ionotropic receptor which will in turn cause
the conformational change of an ion channel which will result in opening of the channel
which will then allow a certain ion(s) to pass trough it to the other side of the membrane"
• ionotropic ACh-r
• ionotropic glutamate-r
Define the term metabotropic neurotransmitter. List at least 3 metabotropic
"a neurotransmitter which will affect a receptor which is not directly linked to an
ion channels but will rather activate g-proteins. These g-proteins will set forth a
metabotropic cascade that will eventually result in ion exchange between the intra- and
What is the role of synapsin in the process of chemical neurotransmission?
Synapsin is a protein that acts as a glue between the synaptic vesicle and
microfilaments בסלוו טרנספורט מיקרו טובולס. It functions to make the synaptic vesicle stay in the "reserve" pool of
vesicles instead of being in the "ready to be released" pool. Thereby it is thought that
synapsin functions as an inhibitory regulator of neurotransmission
Name 3 macromolecules that are integral parts of the membrane of synaptic
• synapto - tagmin
• synapto - brevin
• syn - taxin
Make a drawing of synapse and label
a) width of synaptic cleft
b) macromolecules interconnecting adjacent nerve cells.
• collagen type 4
. Classify synapses according to their
a) ultrastructural feature
c) pre and postsynaptic elements
a. symmetric and asymmetric
b) inhibitory and excitatory
axo - dendridic
axo - axonic
axo - somatic
*List those macromolecules that have already been identified in the synaptic
cleft of the myoneural junction.
• collagen type 4
Define the term and physiological role of Ranvier nodes.
a short interruption or gap in they myelin sheath of a nerve fiber between two
myelin coverings coming from adjacent, but different, glial cells. At this specific point an
action potential can be generated because here ions can flow across the mambren.
The action potential will then make nerves capable of sending signals at much
greater speed and over longer distances
**List the major factors that inhibit the regeneration of damaged axons in the
• if there is no Basement Membrane of myelin sheath left to guide the regenerating
• formation of glial scar tissue
• presence of myelin associated glycoproteins that inhibit axonal growth
• presence of protein (no-go A) that inhibit axonal growth
1: bm 2: scar tissue 3: myelin associated glycoprotins 3: no-goA
List the major factors playing role in regeneration of myelinated neuron/cell in
the nervous system.
• division of schwann cells -> make a cylinder -> guide new nerve processes
• sprouts from severed axons that will grow from the proximal stump
• if one encounters a cylinder made by schwann cells it might grow toward the
designated target organ
• Integrin proteins are needed to signal about the micro environment
• basement membrane of the schwann cells will show the way
• axons and their filopodia
. List the exogenous molecules influencing axonal growth during
• Cell adhesion molecules (NCAM, NGCAM)
• Extracellular growth molecules (laminin and fibronectin)
• Nerve growth factor (NGF)
• diffusible agents (glutamate, GABA)
.Define the term "Wallerian degeneration".
The degenerative changes that happens in a distal segment of a peripheral nerve
fiber (axon and myelin) when its continuity with its respective cell body has been
interrupted by a focal lesion
. List 3 neurotransmitters that play substantial roles in the endogenous pain
attenuation mechanisms of the CNS
The endogenous opioids: don't know if they count as neurotransmitter (stupid question)
. a) Name at least five neurotransmitter substances
b) Describe the main steps of the mechanism how they are released from the
1) neurotransmitter is stored in synaptic vesicle
2) synaptic vesicle fuse with synaptic membrane
3) neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft via exocytosis
Which cranial nerve does the inferior salivatory nucleus belong to? Define
the location and the function of the inferior salivatory nucleus.
• it belongs to the glossopharyngeal nerve (9)
• it is located in the lowest part of the pons.
• Superio-dorsal to the nucleus ambiguous in the general-vixceral-efferent
column inferior to the superior salivary nucleus (according to Heins)
• it gives parasympathetic (visceromotor) preganglionic fibers to the otic ganglion
which will then eventually innervate the parotid gland
Name the cranial nerves that run on the anterior surface of the flocculus
• 7 Facial
• 8 vestibulocochlear
. List the cranial nerves that:
a) somatomotor nuclei of which are located in the ventrolateral somatomotor cell
b) that send sensory fibers to the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve.
• 5 trigeminal (masticatory muscles)
• 7 facial (muscles of facial expression)
• 9,10,11 from the nucleus ambiguous
. List the cranial nerves that have somatomotor nuclei in the dorsomedial
somatomotor cell column.
a.Which cranial nerves carry sensory information from the taste buds
b) which nuclei receive this information?
cranial nerves-> nucleus of solitary tract -> VPM of thalamus
-> cortical taste area in opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus (ipsilateral)
Which nuclei perform similar functions as the gracile & cuneate nuclei and the
superficial lamina of the dorsal horn?
-Principal pontine nucleus of the trigeminal system
-Descending spinal nucleus of the trigeminal system
What is the location of those cells which ascend from the (stupid question)
a) gracile funiculus tract
b) cuneate funiculus tract
c) lemniscus trigeminalis
d) where do they originate?
a. in the dorsal root ganglion
b. in the dorsal root ganglion
c. Principal pontine and descending spinal nuclei of trigeminal nerve
d. Principal pontine and descending spinal nuclei of trigeminal nerve
עושים אותו תפקיד
Define the position of the following in the CNS:
a) red nucleus
b) parabrachial nucleus
c) substantia nigra
d) dorsal nucleus of vagus
a. Tegmentum of midbrain next to the substantia nigra
b. Heins: located adjacent to the superior cerebellar peduncle
c. • In the midbrain dorsal to the cerebral peduncles
d. in the medulla, under the floor of the 4th ventricle, in the vagal trigone
. List the major afferent and efferent connections of the red nucleus.
• dentato-rubral tract (from cerebellum)
• cortico-rubral tract (from cerebral cortex)
• rubrospinal tracts
***** Which nuclei are involved in sound localization?
superior olivary complex
• has bipolar neurons with lateral and medial dendrites. Lateral dendrite receives
auditory input from one ear and the medial dendrites from the other ear
*List the descending pathways connecting the brainstem and the spinal cord.
a) medial descending pathways
• vestibulo spinal
• tecto spinal
• reticulo spinal
List the ascending pathways of the spinal cord.
• gracile fasiculus
• cuneate fasiculus
• spino thalamic tract
• spino cervico thalamic tract
• spino cerebellar pathways: dorsal, ventral, rostral, cuneo-cerebellar tracts
• spino reticular tract
• spino mesencephalic tract
What are the functional elements of the spinal cord?
C1-C3: head and neck
• C4: phrenic nerve
• C5-T1: brachial plexus, upper limb
• T2-L3: Trunk, abdominal organs
• L2-S2: lower limb
• S2-S4: sacral plexus and parasympathetic
*Define the segments of the spinal cord at the level of which
a) the interomedio-lateral nucleus and
b) Clark's column are located.
Define the appearance of the interomedio-lateral nucleus in the spinal cord
and its neural functions.
• Thoracolumbar T1-L2: Sends off preganglionic fibers which go to the
sympathetic trunk which will provide sympathetic innervation to viscera
• Sacral S2-S3: sends parasympathetic preganglionic neurons which will
innervate viscera of the pelvis (and the descending colon also)
What makes up the pyramidal tract?
• cortico-spinal (to spinal cord -> onwards)
• cortico-bulbar (to brainstem)
Define the location of the pyramidal tract in the
a) internal capsule
d) medulla oblongata
e) spinal cord
a. in the knee (genu) of the internal capsule
b. middle part of the base of the mesencephalon
c. in the base of pons
d. inside the pyramid of medulla oblongata
e. lateral and anterior cortico-spinal tracts
Describe the somatotopy of the pyramidal tract
during the course of the pyramidal tract it will turn two times at a 90° angle
• in the cortex it has a medial-lateral orientation
• in the internal capsule it will turn 90° and have a anterior-posterior orientation
• in the mesencephalon it will turn 90°again and have medial-lateral orientation again
Where are the pyramidal fibers located in the spinal cord?
• Crossed fibers: will descend in the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus
! ! lateral corticospinal tract
• Uncrossed fibers: will descend in the medial part of the anterior funiculus
! ! anterior corticospinal tract
. *Name the motor nuclei of cranial nerves that receive exclusively contralateral
innervations from the pyramidal tract.
• 7 - facial nerve motor nucleus
• Nucleus ambiguus
• 9 - hypoglossal nerve motor nucleus:
In the pyramidal tract, where do indirect corticospinal fibres end?
In Rexed laminae:
. a) Name the structures that border the internal capsule.
b) What is the location of the pyramidal tract in the internal capsule?
a. • medial: caudate nucleus, thalamus
• lateral: lentiform nucleus (putamen+globus pallidus)
b. • its located in the knee (genu) of the internal capsule
Which cortical areas does the pyramidal tract arise from? Define also the
Brodmann number of these regions.
• 30% of fibers from primary motor cortex (4)
• 30% of fibers from premotor area and supplementary motor cortex (6 and 7)
• 40% of fibers from primary somatosensory cortex (3,1,2)
*List the symptoms of pyramidal tract disorder.
• muscle weakness
• decreased control of active movement (slowness)
• babinski sign
.a)List the receptors, axons, cell groups, fibre tracts & nuclei that are parts of
the sensory ascending fibre tract system called the spinothalamic tract. List
the components from the receptors to the cerebral cortex.
The whole point of the spinothalamic tract is to transmit information to the thalamus
about pain, temperature, itch and crude touch. The pathway decussates at the level of
the spinal cord rather than in the brainstem like the posterior column medial leminscus
1. receptors : high threshold receptors
2. axons : C and A∂ fibers
3. cell groups : interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn and
! ! ! ! ! projecting neurons in the spinal gray matter
4. fibre tracts : spinothalamic tract
5. nuclei : VPL (ventro-postro-lateral) nucleus of thalamus
6. then goes to : thalamocortical tract
7. and ends up : postcentral gyrus
2. List the receptors, axons cell groups, fibre tracts & nuclei that are parts of the
sensory dorsal column - medial lemniscus ascending fibre tract system. List the
components from the receptors to the cerebral cortex.
1. receptors !! : low threshold receptors
2. axons : Aα and Aß
3.cell groups : spinal DRG (cell bodies of Aα and Aß)
4. fibre tracts : Gracile and cuneate fasiculus
5. nuclei : gracile and cuneate nuclei
6. fibre tracts : medial lemniscus
7. nuclei : VPL (ventro-postro-lateral) of thalamus
8. then goes to : thalamo-cortical tract
9. and ends up : post-central gyrus
. List 5 nuclei, area or fibre tracts in the CNS system that participate in the formation of
the dorsal column medial lemniscus ascending sensory system.
• Cuneate fasiculus
• Gracile nucleus
• Cuneate nucleus
• somatosensory cortex in cerebral cortex, post-central gyrus, Broadman 3,1,2
List 3 major fibre tracts of the anterolateral ascending sensory system.
-Spino! ! ! thalamic! ! tract
-Spino! ! ! mesencephalic tract
-Spino! ! ! reticular! ! tract
Name the ascending sensory pathways of the spinal cord that carry nerve signals
generated by low threshold receptors in the skin, muscles of the upper limb to the
Cuneocerebellar and rostral spino cerebellar
-posterior spino! ! cerebellar! ! tract
-anterior spino! ! cerebellar ! ! tract
Name the ascending tracts that conduct sensory impulses from the a) lower and b)
upper limb to the cerebellum
a) Lower limb: ---*posterior spino! ! cerebellar! ! tract
* anterior spino! ! cerebellar ! ! tract
b) upper limb:!! ! cuneo! ! cerebellar ! ! tract
*rostral! ! spino! ! cerebellar! ! tract
a) Name the specific sensory nuclei of the thalamus that send afferent fibers
to the cerebral cortex
b) In which histological layer of the cerebral cortex do these afferent fibers terminate?
lateral geniculate body
medial geniculate body
ventral postero-lateral nucleus
ventral postero-medial nucleus
all terminate in internal granular layer (4)
*List the cranial nerves that have viscerosensory nuclei.
10 - Vagus
9 - glossopharyngeal
7 - facial
Which type of primary afferents conduct volleys to the spinal cord from
a) high threshold mechanoreceptors
b) low threshold
c) muscle spindles.
a. C and A∂ fibers
b. Aα and Aß
. Define the terms:
a. An area of the skin which is innervated by a spinal nerve coming from one spesific
b. An area of the skin which is innervated by spinal nerves coming from certain spinal
segments which are also responsible for the innervation of specific organs.
As a result some sensations in that specific organ might be felt in the skin which is innervated
by the said spinal segment due to the fact that the brain is more "used" to the sensation of that
specific segment being form the skin or superficial structures than from the viscera.
This is the principal behind the "referred pain"
*What are the somatomotor nuclei columns in the brainstem?
List the visceromotor (parasympathetic) nuclei of the cranial nerves.
3 occulomotor! ! Edinger-westphal nucleus
7 facial! ! ! superior salivatory nucleus
9 glossopharyngeal inferior salivatory nucleus
10 vagus!! ! dorsal motor nucleus of vagus
Which type of motoneurons are located in the spinal cord? Define their
a) somatic motorneurons:
• -> extrafusal skeletal muscle fibers (regular muscle) : alpha motor neuron
• -> intrafusal skeletal muscle fibers (muscle spindle) : gamma motor neuron
b) autonomic pregangionic motorneurons:
• ->peripheral autonomic ganglia
List nuclei involved in the movement of the eye.
• occulomotor nucleus
• trochlear nucleus
• abducens nucleus
5. List at least five descending pathways that are involved in the control of
spinal motor functions.
interstitio- spinal!! tract
reticulo- spinal!! tract
Name brainstem nuclei that send descending fibers to the spinal motor
• medial and lateral vestibular nuclei
• reticular formation
• tectum of mesencephalon
• red nucleus
• nucleus raphe magnus
• locus ceruleus
*Name 3 nuclei in the diencephalon that participate in the regulation of
• subthalamic nuclei
*Name 3 nuclei (areas) in the telencephalon that participate in the regulation
of somatomotor function.
• caudate nucleus
• lentiform nucleus (putamen+globus pallidus)
• primary motor area of cerebral cortex
Define the term motor unit
A motor neuron and its corresponding innervated skeletal muscle fibre
. List 3 muscles on the head whose motor neurons receive exclusively
contralateral innervations from the pyramidal tract.
• levator labii superioris
What are the differences between nuclear and supra-nuclear facial paralysis?
• Nuclear: all of the muscles of facial expression are paralyzed on the same
side(ipsilaterally) as the lesion
• Supranuclear: paralysis that is due to lesions above the primary motor neurons contralateral
a)Define the term "lamina choroidea"
b)Where is it located in the brain?