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The most significant territorial loss for the Ottomans was


muhammad ali was

the Egyptian leader who overthrew Ottoman control.

Which of the following is not a reform proposed in the Tanzimat era?

a democracy as the governmental model for the empire

the young ottomans were

fiercely opposed to the Tanzimat reforms.

Which of the following was not one of the leading principles of the Young Turks?

Islam as the guiding principle in public life

Which of the following Young Turk proposals caused the most dissension in the empire

Turkish as the official language of the empire

Which of the following accounts for beginning of the social reform movement in Russia in the nineteenth century?

military defeats

A defeat in the Crimean War stopped expansion by the


The key to social reform in Russia was

the emancipation of the serfs.

The emancipation of the Russian serfs

resulted in little if any increase in agricultural production.

The centerpiece of Sergei Witte's Russian industrial policy was

a massive program of railway construction.

Tsar Alexander II was assassinated in 1881 by

an agent of the Land and Freedom Party

After the assassination of Alexander II, his successor Nicholas II

championed oppression and police control.

The decisive factor in the Russo-Japanese War was

the destruction of the majority of the Russian navy in battle with the Japanese

The 1905 Bloody Sunday massacre eventually

led to the establishment of the Duma in Russia.

For most of the last fifty years of the Qing dynasty, China was ruled by


Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao were the leaders of the

Hundred Days Reforms.

In 1900, foreign embassies in China were besieged by

the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists.

The Meiji reformers actively copied the western Europeans and Americans because

they understood the danger of those two groups and wanted to find a way to avoid commercial and/or imperial domination by either one.

Which of the following was not one of the foundations of the Meiji Restoration?

turning japan into a constitutional republic

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