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Exam 2 chapter 6 and chapter 7

terrestrial planets
mercury, venus, earth, mars
jovian planets
jupiter , saturn, neptune,uranus
jovian planets description
-planets formed in a region of the solar system with lower orbital speeds
-large moons formed in surrounding disks of material
-ejected icy planetesmials that are now oort cloud comets
- formed in regions cold enough
Have conditions on Mars may have been suitable for life in the past?
there are dried up riverbed on mars
Which planet have the highest average surface temperature and why?
Venus, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere
Which planet could an astronaut visit without a spacesuit (and survive)?
None; an astronaut would need a spacesuit to survive a visit to any other planet in the solar system.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the outer planets?
They have very few, if any, satellites
What are the main constituents of jovian planets
hydrogen and helium
Where are most of the known asteroids found?
Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
terrestial planets description
accredited from the planetesmials of rock and metal
-surfaces dramatically altered during the heavy bombardment
Which factors determine a planet's average surface temperature?
-distance from the sun, reflectivity, and strength of greenhouse effects
Highest Temperature to lowest temperature
What factors determine how long it takes a planet to orbit the sun?
distance from the sun only
Longest time around the sun to shortest time
Rank based on the number of moons that orbit
Jupiter :63
Mercury: 0
Average distance from the Sun from farthest to closest
Pluto, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Earth, Mercury
Base on mass from highest to lowest
Sun, Jupiter, Earth, Mars, Mercury, Pluto
Size (average equatorial radius) from lowest to smallest
Sun, Jupiter, Earth, Mars, Mercury, Pluto
What do hydrogen compounds condense into?
Lowest temperature to highest temperature
Which vaporizes next? Which vaporize into gas first?
Hydrogen and helium gas
Hydrogen compounds
Materials on the distance from the sun at which they could condense into a solid nebula from farthest to closest:
Hydrogen compounds--->rock---> metals
What is the sun made of:
The composition of the Sun is mostly hydrogen and helium
What are hydrogen compounds?
Hydrogen compounds are molecules that contain hydrogen and one or more other elements such as H2o (water), methane ( CH4) and ammonia (NH3)
At what temperature do hydrogen and helium condense?
It is very difficult to make solid or helium but liquid solid hydrogen or helium can both be produced in laboratories. Scientists cool it to extremely low temperatures
What are the main constituents of the jovian planets?
hydrogen and helium
Where did the elements heavier than hydrogen and helium come from?
They were produced inside stars
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the inner planets?
They all have substantial atmospheres.
Are tall volcano required for volcanicism?
any flow of molten lava across a surface
How can you distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters?
The craters are not associated with any mountains or lava flows
What is tectonics?
The geological process that we call tectonics refers to_____________.
any service disruption, such as stretching or crumbling, caused by stresses within the interior of the world.
Which of the following is necessary for erosion to occur on a planet or a moon?
an atmosphere
What is Valles Marineris?
a long system of canyons stretching nearly a fifth of the way around Mars,looking much like a set of giant cracks in the surface.
What is Olympus Mons?
a giant mountain on Mars, with a crater at its top.
How did Mercury's cliff form?
Mercury's long tall cliffs are thought to have formed when________________________.
the entire planet shrank, causing the surface to crumple.
The major surface features of the lunar highlands are____________.
Mar's Olympus Mons
Big Island of Hawaii
Smooth surfaces of the lunar maria
Impact cratering
old surface features of the lunar highlands
Earth's grand canyon
current locations of Earth's continents
Mercury many long,tall cliffs
Mar's Valles Marineris
Out of three characteristics of three planets:
Which one would you expect to have the most wind?
thin atmosphere, low temperature, and fast rotation rate
What is a runaway greenhouse effect?
a greenhouse effect so extreme that if a planet has oceans, it makes has oceans, it makes the oceans boil away completely
Which gas that absorbs ultraviolet light from the Sun?
Venus description
-sulfuric acid clouds
-runaway greenhouse effect
-almost no surface winds
Earth description
-atmosphere composed primarily of nitrogen
-ultraviolet absorbing stratosphere
-extremely low density atmosphere
-global dust storms
The core,mantle, and crust of a planet are defined by differences in their___________.
Which of the terrestrial worlds has the strongest magnetic world?
Why does Earth have the strongest magnetic field among the terrestrial worlds?
It is the only one that has both a partially molten metallic core and reasonably rapid rotation
What most likely explains why venus does not have a strong magnetic field?
Its rotation is too slow
The relatively few craters that we see within the lunar maria ____________________.
were formed by impacts that occured after those that formed most of the craters in the lunar highlands
which of the following describes tectonics?
the disruption of a planet's surface by internal stresses
Why do we think Mercury has so many tremendous cliffs?
They were probably formed by tectonics stresses when the entire planet shrank as its core cooled
Which planet have the least substantial atmosphere?
What are greenhouses effect?
gases that absorb infrared light