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Info 2 Key Terms
AQA AS-level ICT Info 2
Terms in this set (88)
The capture of data.
The conversion of data into information.
Information produced from data.
Translating data into language the computer understands (binary)
Shortening or abbreviating data for quicker data input and recognition, lowers the risk for human error.
The process of converting information or data into a code, especially to prevent unauthorised access.
Data given context and therefore meaning.
Raw facts and figures.
Facts and opinions about a living person.
Direct data source
Data gathered from an original source.
Indirect data source
Gathered from another source or as a byproduct of another operation.
Automatic computer checks to ensure that the data entered is sensible and reasonable.
The physical equipment of a computer.
A program on a computer system that allows it to function and carry out the processing needed.
A series of actions or operations that are undertaken to make sure that the ICT system can run smoothly.
A computer system that takes a set of inputs, processes them and creates a set of outputs. This is done using both hardware and software.
The use of technology for the input, storage, processing and output of data and information.
Linking 2 or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data, communicating software.
Network interface card
A component inside any device that will allow access to the network.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A network that usually covers a single site and could be linked by the use of cables.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
A network that usually covers a large geographical area and could be linked by cables, microwave or satellite.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Connects LAN's in a city or town.
A network that has no dedicated servers. All computers are equal, so they are called peers.
Server based network
There is a central location where users can share and access network resources. There is one login and password for the entire network. All computers on the network will point to one server.
A local or restricted communications network, especially a private network.
An intranet that can be partially accessed by authorised outside users, enabling businesses to exchange information over the internet in a secure way.
A worldwide system of computer networks, a network of networks.
World Wide Web (WWW)
An information system on the internet which allows documents to be connected to other documents by hypertext links.
Central processing unit, sometimes referred to as the processor.
Hardware device (wired or wireless) that joins networks together at the network protocol layer.
Small, simple network device that allows multiple computers to communicate. An expensive piece of network equipment often in home wired networks and small businesses.
A device that enables a computer to transmit and receive data.
Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
The study of how people interact with computers.
The link between the user and the ICT system, involves both software and hardware.
Graphical User Interface
Uses graphics, icons and pointers to make operation of tbe computer user friendly. Designed to make it intuitive for the user. Uses WIMP.
WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointers)
The key aspects of a GUI. e.g. dialogue boxes, pictures, pop up menus/ pulldown menus, mouse/touch-pads.
Menu based Interface
Choices are displayed on screen to be selected in order to operate the system.
Command Line Interface
User types in commands for the computer to interpret and carry out the task. Only used by IT experts.
Natural language interface
Communicating with the computer using conversational words.
Electronic Data Interface (EDI)
Allows information to transfer between different systems sometimes within different organisations electronically.
Breaking professional rules set by an employer or professional body that results, intentionally or unintentionally in harm to the organisation or clients.
Illegal acts committed intentionally using a computer as the principal tool e.g. theft of money
Threats that come from employees either with malicious intent or through carelessness.
Threats that come from outside the organisation e.g. hacking/ spyware
A set of standards or rules which defines how communication takes place between computers e.g. IP, HTTP, FTP
Code of conduct
The guidelines to the specific ICT system. A voluntary set of rules which people agree to follow or abide by. Not legally binding but once someone agrees to abide by it, then it is considered binding.
The rules or laws made by agencies.
A law or a set of laws e.g. computer misuse act, data protection act, copyright of patents act.
A level of quality or attainment.
The person whose data is being collected.
Government official who oversees the data protection act.
People or organisations who process the personal data who must follow good practices.
Intrinsic value of data
Data has value in its own right.
Commercial value of data
Data has no physical monetary value but may have financial value to businesses.
Some data items which are available freely to the public e.g. electoral register.
Refers to the making of copies of data that may be used to restore the original if a loss of data occurs.
Restoring files to the original state before failure occurred.
Takes a full image of the system that can take a long time to process and slows processes down.
Only backups files that are different from the files in the previous
, however when some time has passed since the last full backup it would be time consuming.
Backs up only the files that have changed since the last backup (any type of previous backup).
A backup method used by large organisations with an internet connection.
Transferring files to a remote site using WAN.
Storing identical data on two different disks. Whenever data is stored to the disk it is stored on both disks.
Redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID)
Fault-tolerant system which uses a set of two or more disk drives instead of one disk to store data. By using two disks to store the same data a fault in a disk is less likely to affect the whole system.
Method of computer processing used when there is a large number of similar transactions that can be processed together.
The user will have a conversation with the computer using an input device to directly input the data into the system which is processed at the same time.
Data for each transaction is entered at source and processed immediately.
A tag of three or four letters, preceded by a period, which identifies a data file's format or the application used to create the file.
The smallest amount of visible data in an image.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
The most common format for text files in computers and on the internet. Each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7bit binary number. 128 possible characters.
Groupings of 1's and 0's that makes information a format that a computer can understand.
A coding scheme similar to ASCII that attempts to represent characters in most of the world's languages using 2bytes for each one.
Binary stored data representing an image created using a grid of small squares called pixels.
File that contains instructions for drawing the picture made using mathematical lines. Used in CAD, these graphics allow the user to manipulate objects as entire units.
In a computer 8 bits can store up to the number 255 for instance. You can also store negative numbers but the computer must be informed.
Garbage In Garbage Out (GIGO)
When incorrect data is input the output is incorrect as a result. This is referred to as...
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)
Approach to telephones that allows the user to make voice calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (analog) telephone line.
Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
An online system that allows teachers to share educational materials with their pupils via the web.
An inexpensive method of sending a message which allows exact copies of written images or images to be sent without preparation.
Unauthorised access that monitors what you are doing with malicious intent. e.g. key logging
Intentionally accessing a computer without authorization or exceeding authorized access.
Prevention, detection and repair.
A list of all the requests for individual files that people have requested from a website.
Keeps unauthorized Internet users out of private intranets.
Security measures that require the physical body for access.
Levels of permitted access
Users are given different levels of access to the network.
Computers programmed with "subject knowledge" to mimic the role of experts.
On screen forms
Uses to enter data into the computer it reduces the chance of errors such as missed field. Mimics the form of paper forms.
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