Quiz 1, Sociology Chapter 20, Education
Terms in this set (77)
The social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills and cultural norms and values
Formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers
The extent of schooling in any society is tied to what?
Its level of economic development
Why does formal schooling, that which does not include survival skills, in low and middle income countries favor the wealthy?
The wealthy people can attend because they have the means and the time, they may not have to work to survive
The word "school" is Greek meaning what?
Name a few ancient Greek, famous teachers who taught only the upper-classmen who had spare time.
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
Today limited schooling in poor countries reflects what?
The national culture, such as religion and traditions
What is the average income in India compared to the U.S?
They earn about 7% of the average U.S. income
In India, they rely on most their incomes to come from who?
What limits the opportunity for Indian children to get schooling?
They work in factories 60 hours a week to provide income to their families
How much of India's population cannot read or write?
Why do Indian families not mess with educating their daughters?
after she is grown and married her income with go to her husbands family. Girls work as children instead of going to school, so the families can benefit from her in some way
What brought mandatory education to Japan and in what year did this happen?
Industrialization in 1872 created mandatory education
What countries education system produces the world's highest achievers?
What created a need for a education workforce in Great Britain?
The Industrial Revolution
What do the "public schools" of Great Britain teach, they are like our private boarding schools?
academics, speech patterns, mannerisms and social graces of the British upper-classman
How have the British tried to reduce the importance of social background in schooling?
By expanding their University systems and linking admission to competitive entrance exams
Name the 2 prestige's Universities in Great Britain?
Oxford and Cambridge, referred to as "Oxbridge"
What was the first country to set a goal of mass education and what year did this happen?
U.S. , by 1918 all states had passed mandatory education laws
What shapes the U.S. education system?
Our high standard of living--most young people don't have to work
Democratic principle-- says education should be provided to everyone
The U.S. idea that schooling is crucial to personal success, and that everyone has equal opportunity to education is an opinion that expresses what?
Our cultural ideas rather than reality
What are the 5 things the structural-functional theory looks at, in functions of schooling?
Socialization, Cultural innovation, social integration, social placement and latent functions of schooling
Describe cultural innovation
Faculty create culture as well as pass it on the students. Research and discovery leads to changes in our way of life
Describe social integration
Schooling molds a diverse population into one society sharing norms and values
Why did the states enact a mandatory education law a century ago that did serves the same purpose today?
Immigration was very high, this was the way to teach the immigrants about our norms and values
Describe Social placement
Schools identify talent and match instruction to this, regardless of social backgrounds, provides a path for upward social mobility
Describe Latent functions of schooling
It provides child care, it occupies young people and keep them from competing in the job market, brings people together of marriage age, and establishes life-time social networks
What does the structural-functional theory stress in education?
It stresses ways in which formal education supports the operation of a modern society
What is the basic idea of the Symbolic-interaction theory?
That people create reality they experience in their day to day interactions.
What does the Symbolic-interaction theory explain?
How stereotypes can shape what goes on in the classroom.
What does the structural-functional theory look at in education?
The ways in which formal education supports the smooth operation and stability of society.
Describe Self-fulfilling prophecy
Its tied to the symbolic-interaction theory, says people who expect people to act in certain ways often encourage that very behavior
What does the structural-functional theory overlook?
How classroom behavior of students and teachers can vary from one setting to another, it says little about the problems of the education system
What does the symbolic-interaction theory explain?
How we all build reality in our everyday actions with others.
What is the limitation of the Symbolic-interaction theory?
People don't just make up beliefs about superiority or inferiority, they are actually built into society's system of social inequality
What does the Social-conflict theory explain?
How schooling both causes and perpetuates social inequality. It explains how stereotypes arise in the first place
What theory does the social-conflict approach challenge about schooling?
It challenges the structural-functional theory
Describe social control
Part of the social-conflict theory, says that school is way of controlling people, and reinforcing the status
Describe standardized testing
Part of social-conflict theory, because these test questions will always reflect our societies culture, minorities will always be disadvantaged.
Describe school Tracking
Part of social-conflict theory, tests are used for tracking, assigning students to different educational programs, creates inequalities
Why do students at private schools outperform the students of public schools?
Smaller classes, more demanding coursework and greater discipline
Explain Inequality in Public schooling
Difference in funding creates unequal resources. schools in more affluent area receive better education than the poor, and teachers salaries vary in different areas by as much as 35,000 dollars
Define Cultural Capital
Means the parents value schooling, reading to their kids and encourage the use of imagination that would help them better perform in school
What is the biggest factor in college enrollment?
Name one reason that the education gap widens between whites and minorities
Minorities are not as likely as whites to graduate form high school, much less complete 4 years of college.
For both men and women, greater income earning has to do with what?
Social backgrounds, the best schooling is offered to those with the most money
Name 5 specific benefits community colleges offer
Low costs, they have special importance to minorities, they serve local communities and students from abroad, teachers are not researching their teaching, they teach career skills for specific jobs
Describe a Credentials Society
it means it evaluates people on the basis of their educations, companies hire those with the best educations. It allows people who start off advantaged to stay this way, and hurts others.
What does the social-conflict theory overlook in education?
It overlooks the hard work it takes to finish a degree, and the fact that schooling can provide upward social mobility to people despite their backgrounds
What are the 5 ways Thomas Sizer identified that large bureaucratic schools undermine education?
Rigid uniformity, numerical ratings, rigid expectations, specialization and little individual responsibility
Describe Little individual responsibility
Teachers have little control over what they teach, any change of pace might disrupt the system
What is very common among college students?
Passivity, the quiet classroom
Faculty in colleges can bring their students to life in the classrooms by doing what?
Calling on students by name , positively reinforcing student participations, asking good questions and giving students time to answer, asking for students opinions even when no one volunteers
Define Functional illiteracy
A lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday life
What are the 3 recommendations "A nation at risk" recommended for dramatic reform?
students should complete several years of academics
Should not promote students until they meet standards
Teacher training and salaries should be improved to draw more talent
What is grade inflation?
The awarding of higher grades for average work
What accounts for grade inflation?
Teachers are concerned about the morale and self-esteem of their students and their own popularity
Define School choice
Its a policy that allows parents to shop around for the best value of schooling for their children
List the different types of schooling options
public, private, magnet, charter, homeschool, schooling for profit
What is the most recent development in school choice?
The Parent Empowerment Law
Describe the Parent Empowerment Law
A few states have it, if a school is failing students and a large number of parents request change, the school must close down, replace teachers or change how the school is run.
What do "parent trigger "laws do?
They have the goal of giving parents more say in the operation of their child's school.
Why was homeschooling started?
Parents wanted to give their children a strong religious upbringing. Now its because schools are underperforming.
What do the critics say about homeschooling?
It reduces funding to public schools, removes the best parents out of the system that know how to get things done with administrators
Integrating students with special needs or disabilities into the overall educational program. A form of inclusion education, mixing of the students.
What are the current issues in U.S. education?
School choice, homeschooling, schooling people with disabilities, adult education, and the teacher shortage
What discourages people form becoming teachers?
Low salaries, bureaucracy, and bigger and bigger classrooms
What 2 things must happen to improve our public schools?
Teachers need better training or to be fired and better salaries and greater public respect for well qualified teachers
On a social level, what is the only way our schools will improve?
Only to the extent that students, parents, teachers and local communities commit themselves to educational excellence
Who had a first privilege of education in ancient Greece and China?
Why the schooling is limited in India?
poor country and not enough resources
What is a matter if getting into college in Japan?
What is the matter of getting into college in the U.S.?
How many percent of people over the age of twenty-five have earned a four-year college degree in the U.S.?
What is the focus of education in the U.S.?
Pardecal Learn Practical
How many percent of all people today in U.S. classrooms are over the age of twenty-five years?
Do we have surplus or shortage of teachers in the U.S.?