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357 terms

Ocean Systems Mid-Term

STUDY
PLAY
The Inner Core of the Earth is composed of:
1) Molten silicates
2) Solid silicates
3) Iron and Nickel
4) Gasses trapped during accretion and yet to be out-gassed
5) Partially melted and recycled crust from subduction zones
iron and nickel
Which of the following is an example of Uniformitarianism?
1) A Coal Mine Fire creating a volcano
2) Sediment being carried downstream by a river
3) A Meteorite Impact
4) Earth's Magnetic Field disappears during the next 50 years
5) None of the Above
sediment being carried downstream by a river
outgassing is responsible for:
the atmosphere and ocean
Marine science (oceanography) is the study of determining the true ages of the oceans...true or false?
false
Life most likely originated in:
1) Dry environments free of contamination
2) Water
3) Early glaciers
4) The edges of newly formed continents
5) Newly created mountain tops
water
The Crab Nebula is the remains of a star whose supernova stage was witnessed, and the position marked, by Chinese astronomers in A.D. 1054.
1) True
2) False
true
According to the condensation theory, stars and planets formed in celestial nebulae, which are clouds of galactic gas, dust, and debris.
1) True
2) False
true
Who established a center at Sagres, Portugal for the study of marine science and navigation for great wealth and successful trade?
1) Christopher Columbus
2) John Harrison
3) Joseph D. McGregor
4) Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry the Navigator
The magnetic compass, a very important navigational instrument because it points to the magnetic north pole, was invented in Greece in the fourth century BCE.
1) True
2) False
false
Which one of the following best describes a person who studies and observes wave dynamics, currents, and ocean-atmosphere interactions.
1) Marine geologist
2) Physical oceanographer
3) Marine biologist
4) Chemical oceanographer
5) Marine engineer
physical oceanographer
Based largely on rock evidence obtained during Apollo space missions, it is theorized that the Moon was formed about 4.6 billion years ago by ____________.
1) a passing asteroid that was pulled into gravitational orbit around the Earth
2) a massive internal explosion that ripped Earth into two separate chunks of matter differing significantly in mass
3) a mass of ejecta that coalesced into a sphere after a planetary body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth.
4) the lighter elements gathering together in a relatively distant orbit around Earth as it formed by density stratification
5) the lighter elements gathering together in a relatively distant orbit around Earth as it formed by density stratification.
a mass of ejecta that coalesced into a sphere after a planetary body about the size of mars collided with earth
The most abundant form of detectable matter in the universe is oxygen.
1) True
2) False
false
The Miller-Urey Experiment was the first to determine:
1) The composition of the early atmosphere
2) That amino acids could be produced from the early atmosphere
3) That water was not a necessary ingredient for the formation of life
4) Both B & C above
that amino acids could be produced from the early atmosphere
Radioactive decay is a major source of heat within the Earth's Mantle.
1) True
2) False
true
Relative age dating is the process of determining the specific age of rocks (e.g. - this rock is 1.4 million years old).
1) True
2) False
false
Outgasing is responsible for all oxygen in the present-day atmosphere.
1) True
2) False
false
The most abundant form of detectable matter in the universe is ___________.
1) Oxygen
2) Nitrogen
3) Hydrogen
4) Helium
hydrogen
What is the name for the Sun and its family of planets?
1) Big bang
2) Solar system
3) Milky way
4) Nebula
solar system
The universe is composed of galaxies, massive rotating aggregates of stars, planets, moons, and other celestial material that maintain their shape due to the force of gravity. The term galaxy comes from the Greek word 'galaktos' meaning __________.
1) Star
2) Sand
3) Milk
4) Grandiose
5) Light
milk
which has a smoother surface?

earth

billiard-ball
earth
The boundaries of the North Atlantic Ocean are clearly defined by a United Nations International Treaty agreed to in 1968.
1) True
2) False
false
Earth's Moon was formed as a medium-sized asteroid was captured into orbit by Earth's gravity.
1) True
2) False
false
Finding new sea routes for trade and exploration helped to expand people's understanding of the ocean. Fueled by potential material goals rather than "pure" science, Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal was able to establish a marine school of navigation. Henry's students were among the first since the ancient Greeks to be correct in assessing Earth's round shape, as well as estimating its circumference.
1) True
2) False
false
Which one of the following is a satellite which carries a color scanner called SeaWiFS. It measures the distribution of chlorophyll at the ocean surface, which gives a measure of marine productivity?
1) AQUA
2) GPS
3) SEASTAR
4) TOPEX
SEASTAR
Most of today's world ocean was in place about 4.6 billions years ago, making it as old as the Earth itself.
1) True
2) False
false
The average salinity of the World Ocean is_______? (Clue: There's more than one right way to wash dishes as long as they come out clean, or, as Shakespeare explains, "What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other word would smell as sweet." Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, 1-2)
1) 3.4 parts per hundred
2) 34 parts per thousand
3) 34,000 parts per million
4) All of the above
all of the above

3.4 parts per hundred

34 parts per thousand

34,000 parts per million
The scientific method is used for finding irrefutable absolute truth in nature.
1) True
2) False
false
The Library of Alexandria, which was established in the third century BCE (before common era), was the locus for the study of marine science in the western hemisphere.
1) True
2) False
true
The process by which Earth's composition became layered in concentric spheres of progressively heavier material is known as _____________.
1) massive outgassing
2) cumulative accretion
3) density stratification
4) fluid condensation
5) distillation
density stratification
When the material of a spinning nebula collapses due to gravitational attraction, heat due to friction raises the temperature. When the temperature of this shrinking mass of increasingly dense gaseous material reaches about ____________ degrees Celsius, the process of nuclear fusion begins.
1) 10,000
2) 10,000,000
3) 18,000
4) 18,000,000
5) 186,000
10,000,000
submarine canyons are a direct result of offshore seismic activity and tectonic movement... true or false?
false
The farther from the spreading center, the ___________ oceanic floor in that spot.
a) younger
b) older
c) less dense
d) more dense
e) b & d
older and more dense
How many meters is Alvin, a deep-diving research submarine, capable of diving?
a) 5,000 meters
b) 4,000 - 4,500 meters
c) 12,000 meters
d) none of the above
4,000-4,500 meters
Which one of Earth's interior layers is thought to be liquid?
a) Lithosphere
b) Mantle
c) Inner core
d) Outer core
outercore
Identify the following statement as true or false: Darwin and Wallace's theory of natural selection provided indirect support for the geological idea of catastrophism.
a) True
b) False
false
Which on of the following is true about the Earth's mantle?
a) The layer beneath the crust composes 68% of Earth's mass and 83 % of its volume.
b) It accounts for only 0.4% of Earth's total mass and less than 1% of its volume.
c) It consists mainly of iron (90%) and nickel, along with silicon, sulfur, and heavy elements.
d) a & c
e) b & c
a
Which one of the following causes most of the damage during an earthquake?
a) Surface waves
b) Body waves
c) P waves
d) S waves
e) All of above
surface waves
The Himalayan Mountains are the highest mountains on the world's continents. They are a result of a ____________________ tectonic boundary.
a) Ocean/Continent
b) Ocean/Ocean
c) Continent/Continent
d) Transform/Conform
e) Divergent/Transform
continent/continent
What type of plate boundary exists along the west coast of South America?
a) Ocean/Continent
b) Ocean/Ocean
c) Continent/Continent
d) Transform/Conform
e) Divergent/Transform
ocean/continent
Which one of following is the plate boundary where oceanic crust is destroyed?
a) convergent
b) divergent
c) transform
d) all of above
converge
How much of the Earth's total mass is the crust?
a) 0.4%
b) 29%
c) 14%
d) 0.1%
.4%
What is true about passive and active margins?
a) Passive margins exist extensively along the Pacific Rim and active margins are along the Atlantic Rim.
b) Active margins have much volcanic and seismic activity while passive margins have very little of this activity.
c) Passive margins are at the distal edges of diverging plates and active margins are at the edges of converging plates
d) a & b
e) b & c
e) b & c
Which one of the following best describes the process in which the crust plunges (ducks, sounds like ducts) down into the mantle.
a) Seafloor spreading
b) Subduction
c) Magma
d) Radioactive decay
subduction
The California coast will eventually:
a) Fall into the Pacific
b) Slide northwest to a position near Alaska
c) Be suducted westward under the Pacific Ocean
d) Become a string of volcanoes
slide northwest to a position near Alaska
it would take a rise in sea level of __________ feet to drown all the major cities along the east cost of the United States.
20 feet
Heat that drives plate tectonics comes from:
a) Meteorite impacts on the surface of the planet
b) Decay of radiometric materials in the interior of the Earth
c) Frictional heat generated by earthquakes
d) None of the above
decay of radiometric materials in the interior of the earth
Profiling and mapping the ocean bottom depends on an array of depth measurements. The most frequent technique for measuring ocean depth employs what medium?
a) Light in the form of laser beams
b) lead weight at the end of a long line
c) sonic waves transmitted by a transducer
d) pressure sensors dragged along the bottom
sonic waves transmitted by a transducter
the highest earthquale magnitued ever recorded in the united states was 9.2. In which city and state was that earthquke?
anchorage, alaska
In order to measure the depth of the ocean, we can use machines that transmit beams of sound through the water. These beams bounce off the seafloor (along with other dense things like schools of fish), and, by measuring the time required for the sound waves to bounce back to the ship, allow us to read the depth and contour of the seafloor... true or false?
true
Like enormous icebergs, mountains "float" on the underlying material (water for icebergs, the lithosphere for mountains). Which of the following is also true of both icebergs and mountains:
a) In both, tall, massive peaks correspond to broad, shallow roots.
b) In both, the underlying lithospheric material is free to flow and deform under the weight.
c) In both, the underlying material supports the mass through mechanical strength.
d) In both, a point of equilibrium has been reached between the displaced mass and the submerged mass.
e) In both, phase changes take place at approximately 373 kelvin.
in both, a point of equilibrium has been reached between the displaced mass and the submerged mass
Which of the following tectonic interactions is most likely to cause the formation of a rift valley?
a) Ocean-ocean divergent boundary
b) Continent-continent divergent boundary
c) Ocean-continent convergent boundary
d) Ocean-ocean convergent boundary
e) Continent-continent convergent boundary
continent-continent divergent boundary
According to Oceanography, Which of the following was the greatest obstacle to acceptance of Wegener's theory?
a) The discovery of fossil plants in Antarctica
b) The view of the Earth's mantle as a solid scaffold
c) The theory of Pangaea and Panthalassa
d) The presence of continental tracks in the seabed
e) Tidal drag on continents from the sun and the moon
the view of earth's mantle as a solid scaffold
Of the following ocean basin features, the one with the greatest average angle of inclination (the steepest) is ____________.
a) continental shelf
b) continental slope
c) continental rise
d) abyssal plain
continental slope
The shelf at a passive margin is usually very narrow and the shelf at an active margin is often broad.
a) True
b) False
false
Abyssal plains are flat featureless expanses of sediment-covered ocean floor found in nearly all the world's oceans.
a) True
b) False
true
The ocean floor is divided into two main provinces, the shallower continental margin and the deeper ocean basin. What type of rock is indicative of the ocean floor environment?
a) Rhyolite
b) Granite
c) Limestone
d) Basalt
basalt
Continental margins near the edges of converging plates are called _______
__________ .
a) Transform basins
b) Passive margins
c) Active margins
d) Island arcs
e) Shield volcanoes
active margins
Which of the following tectonic interactions is most likely to cause the formation of an island arc?
a) Divergent plate boundary
b) Transform plate boundary
c) Convergent plate boundary
convergent plate boundary
The thickness of sediment covering the oceanic basement rocks should become ______________ farther away from any mid-ocean ridge.
a) Become thicker
b) Become thinner
c) Stay the same
d) Display a random pattern
thicker
Which of the following are main features of continental margins?
a) shelf
b) slope
c) rise
d) all of above
all of the above
About ______ of the world's table salt is currently produced from seawater by evaporation. In 2005 the United States produced by evaporation about 3.9 million metric tons (4.4 million tons) of table salt with a value of about US$160 million.
a) 1/3
b) 1/5
c) 1/7
d) 1/9
1/3
Sediments of the continental slope, continental rise, and the deep ocean floor that originate in the ocean are called ____________.
a) netritic sediments
b) pelagic sediments
c) well-sorted sediments
d) poorly sorted sediments
pelagic sediments
The most valuable living marine resources are ______________________.
a) fish and crustaceans
b) crustaceans and mollusks
c) fish and mollusks
d) fish, crustaceans, and mollusks
fish, crustaceans, and mollusks
One chapter of Grotius's work De Jure Praedae, which defended free ocean access for all nations, was reprinted in 1609 under the title Mare Liberum. Mare Liberum formed the basis for all modern international _______________.
a) laws of the ocean
b) laws of fish
c) laws of marine life
d) laws of the sea
laws of the sea
Evaporites are ______________ deposits that include salts that precipitate from water that evaporates from isolated arms of the ocean or form landlocked seas or lakes.
a) Terrigenous
b) Biogenous
c) Hydrogenous
d) Cosmogenous
hydrogenous
A dilute mixture of sediment and water that periodically rushes down the continental slope is a ______________.
a) nodule
b) evaporite
c) turbidity current
d) diatom
turbitity current
The fastest-growing viable alternative to oil as an energy source is water power.
a) True
b) False
false
Fine particles of sediment can be classified as: sand, silt or clay. These particles are defined by _________.
a) their origin
b) their size
c) their color
d) none of above
their size
Rounding of sediment sand grains becomes more common with an increase in maturity.
a) True
b) False
true
What is the name for the zone where nations hold sovereignty over resources, economic activity, and environmental protection?
a) Exclusive Economic Zone
b) Executive Economic Zone
c) Extinction Economic Zone
d) Executive Ethnic Zone
exclusive economic zone
Which of the following has the least average sediment thickness?
a) Continental shelves
b) Continental slopes
c) Continental rise
d) Deep-ocean floor
deep-ocean floor
Which of the following is the second most valuable physical marine resource?
a) Sand & Gravel
b) Oil
c) Gas
d) Methyl hydrate
e) a & d
sand and gravel
The United States holds nominal control over Law of the Sea policies.
a) True
b) False
false
Usually, the bigger the particle is, the more easily it can be transported by streams, waves, and currents.
a) True
b) False
false
JOIDES is an acronym that stands for ___________.
a) Jurisdiction of International Deep Environmental Seascapes
b) Japan Ocean Investigation and Environmental Survey
c) Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling
d) Jamboree for Oceanic Investigations and Deep Environmental Studies
joint oceanographic institutions for deep earth sampling
____________is the name given to the practice of growing and farming of marine organisms, usually in estuaries, bays, or nearshore environments, or in specially designed structures using circulating seawater?
a) Aquaculture
b) Mariculture
c) Seawaterculture
d) Fishculture
mariculture
Marine resources can be classified as either renewable or nonrenewable. Oil, gas, and solid minerals are renewable resources.
a) True
b) False
false
The most significant potential source of new energy from the ocean is:
a) Current driven turbines
b) The "Limpet 500"
c) Gas hydrates
d) None of the above
gas hydrates
Ships transport to market nearly _______ of the world's crude oil production.
a) 1/3
b) 1/2
c) 2/3
d) 3/4
e) 90%
1/2
Neritic deposits almost always contain biogenous sediments.
a) True
b) False
true
________________ is a type of marine resource classified by use of place or location. Transportation of people and commodities by sea, recreation, and waste disposal for example.
a) physical resources
b) marine energy resources
c) nonrenewable resources
d) nonextractive resources
nonextractive resources
Of the four classes of marine resources, which if any contain potentially nonrenewable resources.
a) Physical
b) Marine Energy
c) Biological
d) Nonextractive
e) a & c
physical, biological
What is the problem with extracting the largest reservoir of hydrocarbon fuel on earth?
a) Oil can leak into the ocean from drilling platforms
b) Natural gas wells are too deep in the ocean to drill
c) Coal mines can flood with seawater
d) Methane Hydrate is too volatile and dangerous
methane hydrate is is too volatile and dangerous
As opposed to pelagic sediments neritic sediments are found _____________.
a) near the coast
b) on the abyssal plain
c) in the water column
d) at divergent plate boundaries
near the coast
Which of the following is NOT a current economic benefit from ocean sediments?
a) Mining of diatomaceous earth
b) Drilling for petroleum deposits
c) Commercial collection of manganese nodules
d) Mining of sand and gravel
commercial collection of manganese nodules
The famous white cliffs at Dover, England are uplifted masses of fossilized radiolarians and diatoms.
a) True
b) False
false
What is the name for water suitable for drinking?
a) Potable water
b) Saline water
c) Transportable water
d) Movable water
potable water
Overfishing occurs when so many fish have been harvested that there no longer exists enough breeding stock left to replenish the species. Most marine species are overfished.
a) True
b) False
true
The sediment type which covers the least volume on the ocean floor is cosmogenous.
a) True
b) False
true
The ocean and some continental land masses are over 4 billion years old. How old are the oldest marine sediments?
a) More than 4 billion years old
b) About 1 billion years old
c) About 180 million years old
d) Less than 1 million years old
180 million years old
True or false. Blue whales are now extinct.
false
why has the fish per capita level decreased?
higher fish population
True or false. the terms aquaculture and mariculture mean the same thing.
false
nearly all the sands, gravels, and muds found on the continental shelf are from a ____________________ source
terrigenous
true or false. the boundaries of the North Atlantic Ocean are clearly defined by international treaty.
false
"sea floor spreading" and "continental drift" are:
both b & c

theories are different, yet similar. they draw conclusions from the same observations
how long would it take to scan the entire ocean floor?
3 days
Extratropical cyclones rotate _________________ in Northern Hemisphere, due to the Coriolis deflection of winds approaching the center of a low-pressure area from great distances.
a)clockwise

b)random

c)counterclockwise

d)easterly
c
Surface currents: (choose all that apply)
a) form global patterns within longitudinal bands
b) are in zones of rapid density change with depth
c) are comprised of water flowing vertically
d) are driven by wind friction
a & d
About 10% of the water in the world ocean makes up all of the surface currents. Most surface currents move water above the _______________, the zone of maximum density change per unit depth.
a) pycnocline
b) halocline
c) thermocline
d) freezing point
a
Conduction is much a more efficient means of moving heat than convection.
a) true
b) false
b
The "Ekman Spiral" describes how water below the surface flows toward the left of the wind direction in the southern hemisphere.
a) true
b) false
a
Looking from the North Pole, the Earth turns counterclockwise. If a projectile or an air mass heads northward from the equator, in which cardinal direction will it veer from its poleward path?
a) west
b) east
c) south
d) it will not veer
b
"El Nino" events are considered to be periods of normal oceanic and atmospheric conditions.
a) true
b) false
b
Due to the combined effect of wind friction, Coriolis Effect, Ekman Transport, land mass, and the pressure gradient, ocean currents tend to __________________.
a)flow in staight lines
b)flow along the periphery (outside) of ocean basins
c)spiral in toward the ocean center
d)dissipate
e)sink downward toward the ocean bottom
b
How many discrete differently named atmospheric circulation cells exist in each of Earth's hemispheres north or south of the equator?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
c
Water vapor, as opposed to precipitation or condensation, is ______ .
a) a gaseous state of water

b) visible as a gas in clouds and fog

c) capable of occupying 4% of atmospheric volume

d) all of the above

e) a and c only
e
The ozone layer is important to life on earth because:
a) It acts as a sink for dangerous chloroflurorocarbons.
b) It absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
c) It helps keep the sun's heat close to the earth's surface.
d) It is the primary atmospheric reservoir of oxygen.
b
Of the world ocean's 6 great current circuits, how many are not peripheral gyres that tend to make large rotational geostrophic gyres, or boundary currents?
a) none
b) one
c) two
d) four
e) all of them
b
The Northern Hemisphere contains much less ocean surface than the Southern Hemisphere. Landmasses have lower specific heat than the ocean. Therefore, atmospheric circulation between the two hemispheres is centered about the meteorological equator, not the geographic equator.
a) true
b) false
a
Planets must have an atmosphere for atmospheric circulation to occur; therefore, cyclones can only happen on Earth.
a) true
b) false
b
Western boundary currents tend to be _____________.
a) warm
b) fast
c) deep
d) all of the above
e) a & c
d
The north-south shifting of the ITCZ and the onset of the monsoons result from seasonal variations caused by the tilt of the Earth's axis.
a) true
b) false
a
Which of the following are parts of the six-cell global atmospheric circulation model?
a) Polar cells, Ferrel cells and Hadley cells
b) Atlantic cells, Pacific cells, and Arctic cells
c) Solar cells, Tropical cells and Temperate cells
d) Low latitude cells, Mid-Latitude cells and High latitude cells
a
transverse currents _________.
a) tend to cross lines of latitude
b) tend to cross lines of longitude
c) are shear currents between adjacent boundary currents
d) are not wind generated
e) b, c, and d
b
choose the answer that most accurately describes the composition of the earth's atmosphere:
a) Mostly water vapor with 20% oxygen and 10% carbon dioxide
b) Mostly nitrogen, with about 20% oxygen and a little water vapor
c) Mostly oxygen and water vapor, with about 20% nitrogen
d) Mostly carbon dioxide and water vapor, with about 20% oxygen
b
With regard to the naming of tropical cyclones, _____________ is to the Caribbean as _____________ is to the Western Pacific.
a) chubasco, monsoon
b) papagayo, kamsin
c) hurricane, typhoon
d) el viento, kaminari
c
Which one of the following western boundary currents carries the most volume?
a) The Gulf Stream
b) The Kuroshio Currents
c) The Brazil Currents
d) The Agulhas Currents
a
The lower atmosphere is a mixture of gases, mostly nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%).
a) true
b) false
a
One sverdrup equals _____ cubic meters/second
a) 10 to the 3rd power
b) 10 to the 6th power
c) 10 to the 9th power
d) 10 to the minus 3rd power
b
The North Pacific trade winds set ocean surface water (<400 meters deep) in motion. Towards which general direction does this current flow
a) north
b) south
c) east
d) west
d
Water of the oceans and water vapor in the atmosphere transfer great quantities of heat from the tropics to the poles. Atmospheric circulation accounts for _____ of the transfer, while ocean circulation accounts for _______.
a) (1/3, 2/3)
b) (2/3, 1/3)
c) (1/4, 3/4)
d) (3/4, 1/4)
b
Which one of the following is a not an eastern boundary current?
a) The East Australian Current
b) The Canary Current
c) The Benguela Current
d) The California Current
a
Oceanographers name currents and large bodies of water according to their relative vertical position in the water column. Which one of the following is the water mass that resides below 1,500 meters (5000 feet) to a depth of about 4,000 meters (13,000 feet)?
a) Intermediate water
b) Central water
c) Deep water
d) Bottom water
c
Eastern boundary currents are ________________________.
a) cold
b) slow
c) shallow
d) all of above
e) b & c
d
Which of the following is true of western boundary currents? (Select all that apply)
a) Cold, shallow and broad
b) Narrow, deep, and fast
c) Water is derived from mid-latitudes
d) Rich in nutrients
e) all of the above
e
Identify the following statement as true or false: life on earth would be safer without the greenhouse effect.
a) true
b) false
b
A ______________ is huge rotating masses of low-pressure air in which winds converge and ascend. A ________________ is a much smaller funnel of fast-spinning with severe thunderstorms.
a) tropical storm, extratropical storm
b) cyclone, tornado
c) tornado, cyclone
d) extratropical storm, tropical storm
b
When a cannon ball is fired northward from the Equator, it will veer towards the east (clockwise).
a) true
b) false
a
Thermohaline circulation instead of wind friction drives the mid- to deep ocean currents. This type of circulation is powered by _________________.
a)Uneven solar input.

b)heat from the Earth's mantle altering the level of the pycnocline.

c)changes in water density that causes it to rise or fall through the water column.

d)all of the above.

e)answers a and c only.
e
Pressure being equal, cold air can hold more water vapor than warm air can.
a) true
b) false
b
Although nutrients in surface water are sometimes depleted by the rapid growth of organism, deep water is often rich in nutrients. When that water rises toward the sunlit surface (upwelling), biological productivity increases.
a) true
b) false
a
Cold water flows to higher latitudes where heat is transferred to it, then it flows back to low latitudes and releases its heat before the cycle repeats.
a) true
b) false
b
The thermocline is best developed in low latitude regions.
a) true
b) false
a
The surface temperature of Earth fluctuates slowly overtime. The global temperature trend has been generally upward during the 18,000 years since the last glacial advance, but the rate of increase has recently accelerated. This rapid warming is probably the result of an enhanced _________________, the trapping of heat by the atmosphere. This effect is necessary for life, without it Earth's average atmospheric temperature would be about -18°C (0°F). However, humans have injected exhorbitant amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
a) greenhouse effect
b) ozone depletion
c) red-tide effect
d) a &b
e) all of the above
a
Sea and land breezes are a significant part of California's coastal weather. A sea breeze can occur when the air over land masses near the coast ________________.
a) rises in temperature
b) falls in temperature
c) rises in pressure
d) falls in pressure
e) a and d
f) b and c
e
Land breezes originate over the sea and move onto the land. Whereas, sea breezes originate on land and move out to the sea.
a) True
b) False
b
Coriolis deflection of moving air masses is due to which of the following?
a) The temperature of the air
b) The gravitational attraction of the moon
c) The shape of mountains and valleys
d) The spherical shape of the rotating earth
d
At sea near 30 degrees latitudethereare areas of high atmospheric pressure and little surface wind. Thery are called the___________. On land these latitudes are the locations of the world's great deserts.
a) trade latitudes
b) trade longitudes
c) horse latitudes
d) horse longitudes
c
According to the temperature-salinity (T-S) profile graph, a mass of water of a certain density and having a unique temperature and salinity can _______________.
a) have multiple density values.
b) be mixed with a water mass having the same temperature and salinity in order to make a single water mass having a completely different density.
c) be mixed with a water mass having the same density (but a different temperature and salinity) to make a single water mass having a totally different density.
d) all of the above.
c
The evaporation of water from the ocean's surface helps to moderate global temperatures due to the water molecule's low heat capacity.
a) True
b) False
b
"Coriolis Effect" will normally cause counterclockwise circulation in the northern hemisphere.
a) True
b) False
b
A pair of air circulation cell which exists between(adjacent is hadley cells) 30°N and 60°N latitude, and 30°S and 60°S is known as
a) Ferrel cells
b) Hadley cells
c) Polar cells
d) Tropical cells
a
As Earth revolves around the Sun the constant tilt of its rotational axis causes the Southern Hemisphere to lean toward the sun in June but away from it in December. The Sun, therefore, appears higher in the sky in June but lower in December.
a) True
b) False
b
Seasonal variation of climate on Earth is due to ___________.
a) tilt of Earth's axis of rotation
b) spin of the earth on its rotational axis
c) elliptical orbit of the Earth around the Sun
d) all of the above
a
Release primarily of ______________ into the atmosphere causes depletion of the ozone layer which, in turn, allows for more UV to pass through to the surface of the earth. ____________ is the place that so far has recorded the greatest decrease (about 50%) in this protective layer.
a) ozone, Bora Bora
b) sulfur dioxide, Antarctica
c) chlorofluorocarbons, Antarctica
d) sulfur dioxode, Bora Bora
c
It will be exceedingly difficult to limit global warming by decreasing the production of carbon dioxide. We depend on fossil fuel to power the world economy. The world energy demand is projected to increase ________ times between now and 2025, with carbon dioxide emissions _______% higher than today.
a) 2, 30
b) 2.5, 40
c) 3, 50
d) 3.5, 65
d
Which of the following is NOT a possible consequence of global warming, according to Oceanography?
a) Ocean currents and patterns of rainfall are likely to change.
b) Islands and low-lying areas will be permanently flooded.
c) The quantity of gases dissolved in seawater, including oxygen, will increase.
d) The Northwest Passage will be open to shipping during the summer.
c
What percentage of the ocean's water is affected by surface currents?
a 10%
b 35%
c 70%
d 90%
a
Storm surge caused the greatest loss of life and property when Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S.Gulf Coast. The storm surge in Bay St. Louis was 10.4 meters (34 feet) high.
a) True
b) False
a
The Hadley-Ferrel-Polar cell model of atmospheric circulation helps describe atmospheric and ocean current convergence and divergence of the northern and southern circulation gyres. Due to the shape of the Earth and the position of the continents on it, the convergence of the subtropical Hadley circulation cells at the ITCZ occurs closest to _____________.
a) the geographical equator
b) the meteorological equator
c) 4 degrees north latitude in summer
d) 0 degrees latitude all seasons
e) b & c
f) a & d
e
A single closed-flow circuit of rising warm material and falling cool material is a _____________________.
a) convection current
b) thermal equilibrium
c) thermocline
d) thermojunction
a
A northeasterly wind blows toward the ______.
a) Northeast
b) Northwest
c) Southeast
d) Southwest
d
After an ENSO event, normal circulation sometimes returns with surprising vigor, producing strong currents, powerful upwelling, and chilly, stormy conditions along the South America coast. These contrasting colder than-normal events are given a contrasting name: La Niña.
a) True
b) False
a
Who is the first person on record to have sailed solo around the world?
a) King Kamehameha
b) Sir Francis Drake
c) Capt. Joshua Slocum
d) Pirate Grace O'Malley
e) Captain Bligh
c
The circulation or residence time of most deep water is about 10 to 20years. In contrast, water in the North Atlantic gyre may take only a little more than a year to complete a circuit.
a) True
b) False
b
Large storms are either tropical cyclones or extratropical cyclones. Tropical cyclones (sometimes called hurricanes or typhoons) are the frontal storms familiar to winter residents of mid-latitude continents. Extratropical cyclones form in a single tropical air mass.
a) True
b) False
b
Which of the following is not a western boundary current?
a) Agulhas Current
b) Brazil Current
c) California Current
d) Gulf Stream
e) Kuroshio Current
c
Many problems are associated with global warming. One of problems is that the ocean is becoming more ___________.
a) alkaline
b) hydrate
c) acidic
d) dehydrated
e) None of above
c
Surface Currents are wind-driven movements of water at or near the ocean's surface. Thermohaline currents are slow, deep, density-driven currents that affect the vast bulk of seawater beneath the pycnocline.
a) True
b) False
a
Although nutrients in surface water are sometimes depleted by the rapid growth of organisms, deep water is often rich in nutrients. When ___________, which makes deep water rise toward surface, occurs, biological productivity increase.
a) downwelling
b) thermocline
c) pycnocline
d) upwelling
d
Alternatives to fossil fuels include __________________________________.
a) nuclear energy
b) renewable resources (wind, solar power, ocean currents, ATOC)
c) a & b
d) none
c
At an international meeting in Japan in 1997, leaders and representatives of 160 countries established carbon dioxide emission targets for each developed country. This is called ________________________, which has not been ratified by the U.S. Senate.
a) the Tokyo Protocol
b) the Hiroshima Protocol
c) the U.N. Protocol
d) the Kyoto Protocol
d
The southward-flowing current that intercepts water outflowing from the Mediterranean Sea and then flows past the west-African coast is called ___________.
a) Atlantic Equatorial Current
b) Agulhas Current
c) Benguela Current
d) Canary Current
e) North African Current
d
Of the two large atmospheric circulation cells in each hemisphere, the Hadley cell extends from the equator to 45 degrees, while the Polar cell extends from 45 degrees to the pole.
a) True
b) False
b
A tropical cyclone converts stored thermal energy located in water molecules into turbulent wind energy by giving up heat through the process called ______________.
a) Vaporization
b) Condensation
c) Climatization
d) Accumulation
b
How much latent heat is given off during the phase change when water vapor becomes liquid water?
a) 80 calories/gram
b) 540 calories/gram
c) Heat is used up, NOT given off
d) So much that it cannot be measured
e) None of the above
b
According to the theory of Ekman Transport, ocean surface currents in the southern hemisphere will _______________.
a) be deflected right
b) be deflected left
c) have a net deflection in a direction 90 degrees to surface flow.
d) both a and c
e) both b and c.
e
For every gram of water vapor at 30 degrees Celcius that condenses into water droplets at 30 degrees Celcius how much heat is released in the process?
a) 346 calories/gram
b) None
c) 540 calories/gram
d) an amount equal to water's heat of vaporization.
e) both a & d
f) both c & d
f
Western boundary currents tend to be cold, slow, broad, and shallow. Eastern boundary currents tend to be hot, fast, narrow and deep.
a) True
b) False
b
Identify the following statement as true or false: scientists are concerned about the rate of global increases in temperature.
a True
b False
a
The lower atmosphere is a nearly homogeneous mixture of gasses, the most plentiful is _________ at 78.1% followed by ___________ at 20.9 %.
a) oxygen, carbon dioxide
b) oxygen, nitrogen
c) nitrogen, oxygen
d) nitrogen, carbon dioxide
c
Alternatives to burning hydrocarbon fuels for energy can likely only be attained using nuclear energy.
a) True
b) False
b
During an ENSO event, the Peru current strengthens and upwelling increases bringing water rich in nutrients to the surface along the west coast of South America. This results in an increase in biological productivity.
a) True
b) False
b
The slow circulation of water at great depth is driven by density differences rather than by wind energy.
a) True
b) False
a
Circulation of the earth's atmosphere is a result of which of the following?
a Uneven air pressure caused by elevation differences near mountains
b Uneven surface temperature caused by internal radioactive decay
c Uneven water circulation patterns caused by Corriolis deflection
d Uneven air temperature caused by variations in solar heating
d
________________ is a large body of air with nearly uniform temperature, humidity, and therefore, density throughout. Air pausing over water or land will tend to take on the characteristics of the surface below.
a) An air circulation
b) An atmospheric circulation cell
c) An air mass
d) A Jet stream
c
ENSO is an acronym for a repeating meteorological and oceanographic event that can severely disrupt normal conditions. The ENSO-driven change in tropical Pacific surface trade winds causes_______________________.
a) build up of seawater in the eastern Pacific, downwelling in the west, and colder eastern sea surface water temperatures.
b) build up of seawater in both the western and eastern Pacific with generally colder sea surface water temperatures overall.
c) build up of seawater in the western Pacific, downwelling in the east, and generally warmer sea surface water temperatures overall.
d) an effect that is actually greater at mid- to high latitudes than it is in the tropics.
c
During an El Nino year:
a Upwelling occurs bringing nutrients to the equatorial surface waters
b Warm water moves westward away from South America
c Water temperature remains fairly constant between 0 and 100 meters
d More evaporation occurs over the ocean causing high precipitation in dry areas
d
Rather than making a continuous loop in each hemisphere, air rising from the equatorial region moves poleward and is gradually deflected eastward; that is, it turns to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This eastward deflection is caused by the Coriolis effect.
a) True
b) False
a
The boundary between air masses of different _______________ is called a front.
a) temperature
b) volume
c) density
d) salinity
c
The state of the atmosphere at a specific time is referred to as the ___________; whereas, the long-term average of the weather in a specific region is called ______________.
a) weather, climate
b) climate, weather
c) horse latitude, doldrums
d) doldrums, horse latitude
a
Which of the following is NOT a possible influence on global warming?
a A clearer atmosphere as volcanic eruptions become more rare.
b Fluctuations in the solar wind causing changes in cloud formation.
c Humans releasing carbon dioxide previously sequestered in rock.
d Ionizing radiation from waste produced at nuclear power plants.
d
The net motion of water down to about 1 kilometer (1,000meters), after allowance for the summed effects of Ekman spiral, is known as Ekman transport (or Ekman flow).
a) True
b) False
b
Western current intensification is not affected by ___________.
a) the Earth's rotation
b) Coriolis Effect
c) pressure gradient
d) deep-trench bathymetry
e) trade wind convergence
d
What evidence exists to support equatorial upwelling?
a Absence of the Coriolis effect at the equator
b High biological productivity at the equator
c Lack of strong winds at the equator
b
Looking at the track of high-latitude ocean currents ( close to the poles) on a typical Mercatur projection map would show these currents____________.
a) appearing under-proportioned
b) appearing unaffected
c) appearing over-proportioned
d) none of the above
c
Global warming is probably the result of an enhanced greenhouse effect, the trapping of heat by the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is an unwanted and unnecessary physical effect for life on earth.
a) true
b) false
b
Which of these lists is arranged in order from smallest wavelength to longest wavelength?
a) seiches, tsunami, wind waves, tides.
b) wind waves, seiches, tsunami, tides.
c) wind waves, tsunami, seiches, tides.
d) tides, seiches, tsunami, wind waves.
e) wind waves, tides, tsunami, seiches.
c
A __________ forms when a sand spit attaches to a headland and narrows the entrance to a bay. It protects the bay from waves and turbulence and encourages the accumulation of sediments there.
a) barrier island
b) tombolo
c) bay mouth bar
d) inlet
c
Fault-defined coasts, such as California's Tomales Bay, the coast of Peru and Chile, and the Gulf of California tend to be relatively ____________ coastlines.
a) meandering
b) sinuous
c) straight
d) undulating
c
Spring tides occur when the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are ____________.
a) directly inline
b) at right angles
c) at left angles
d) in perigee
a
Daily tidal fluctuations are caused by gravitational influences and the relative position between ______________.
a) The Earth
b) The Sun
c) The Moon
d) All of the Above
e) a & b
f) b & c
d
At a depth of water equal to or greater than one-half the wavelength of a passing wave, the motion of the water particles
a) will be in flattened ellipses.
b) tends to form ripples on the seafloor.
c) forms large circular orbits.
d) will be minimal or cease entirely.
c
Which of the following is NOT a possible influence on global warming?
a A clearer atmosphere as volcanic eruptions become more rare.
b Fluctuations in the solar wind causing changes in cloud formation.
c Humans releasing carbon dioxide previously sequestered in rock.
d Ionizing radiation from waste produced at nuclear power plants.
d
The movement of coastal sediments driven by wave action is referred to as longshore drift.
a) True
b) False
a
As a wave travels through an area of deep water, the motion of water molecules travel only up and down as the wave passes through.
a True
b False
b
Spring tides occur when the Earth, Moon and Sun form a right angle. Neap tides occur when the Earth, Moon, and Sun are inline with each other.
a) True
b) False
b
While visiting the Ganges delta in India, you observe a large mass of water moving upstream, from the ocean into the river. What phenomenon is occurring?
a Flood current
b Ebb current
c Slack water
d Tidal datum
a
"Wave Base" for any "Deep-Water Wave" can be calculated by "1/2 Wave Length."
a) True
b) False
a
As the wind velocity increases during a storm,
a) the wave height increases.
b) the wave velocity decreases.
c) the wind tends to flatten the ocean surface.
d) mass transport decreases in the open ocean.
a
Which one of the following can be a standing wave?
a) Tsunami
b) Tides
c) Capillary waves
d) Swell
e) a & b
f) all of above
e
On a typical sandy beach, a lagoon is most likely to form on the _____________.
a) foreshore
b) backshore
c) berm crest
d) longshore
b
By their origin, which one the following describes estuaries that are steep, glacially-eroded, U-shaped troughs?
a) Fjords
b) Drowned river mouths
c) Bar-builts
d) Tectonics
a
Atmospheric circulation causes winds to blow across the United States from west to east, causing:
a Waves to be bigger on the west coast due to the large fetch (Pacific Ocean)
b Waves to be smaller on the west coast due to Coriolis Effect
c Waves will be bigger along the East Coast due to counteracting southerly winds
d Waves will be bigger on the East Coast due to the passive continental margin.
e None of the above
a
Tidal power is the only marine energy source that has been successfully exploited on a large scale. The first major tidal power station was opened in 1966 in __________.
a) France
b) The United States
c) Canada
d) Japan
a
Unlike other moving things, wind waves travel over great distances in virtually straight lines. This is physically possible because:
a) While the wind wave is moving, some water molecules are traveling in closed circles.
b) The wind waves don't move as fast as speeding cannon balls, so Coriolis effect has no influence on them.
c) Wind waves carry only energy, and energy has no mass, and is therefore not subject to Coriolis deflection.
d) Wind waves curve one way in the southern hemisphere and the other way in the northern hemisphere. So waves only look like they are coming in a straight line from their point of origin. It's all a gigantic optical illusion, actually.
e) Wrong! Wind waves are deflected in the same way as everything else that moves on a turning planet. Coriolis effect does not play favorites.
c
In shallow water, the motion of water particles
a) ceases completely.
b) forms large circular orbits.
c) becomes a back-and-forth motion near the bottom.
d) becomes an up-and-down motion near the bottom.
c
Winter beaches will:
a) Become steeper
b) Be composed of coarser materials
c) Will erode
d) All of the above
e) None of the above
d
Ozone during spring over Kalamazoo has been ______ since 1970
a) Increasing
b) Decreasing
c) Unchanged
b
Surface tension of the water tends to limit the size of
a) tsunami.
b) storm surges.
c) capillary waves.
d) gravity waves.
c
What does "perihelion" mean?
a The closest approach of the earth to the sun
b The greatest distance between the earth and the sun
c The closest approach of the moon to the earth
d The greatest distance between the moon and the earth
a
In general, the _____________ the wavelength, the ____________ the wave energy will move through the water.
a) longer, slower
b) longer, faster
c) shorter, slower
d) shorter, faster
e) a & d
f) b & c
f
The height of the tides __________ with distance from an amphidromic point.
a) decreases
b) remains the same
c) increases
d) declines
c
Which of the following does not contribute to eustatic change in sea level?
a) changes in overall glaciation rates
b) global temperature average
c) seafloor spreading
d) trade wind and current intensity
e) Earth impact with comets
d
The node (or nodes) near the center of an ocean basin is called an amphidromic point or a no-tide point in the ocean. The tidal crest rotates once around these points per tidal cycle. Tidal waves move clockwise around the amphidromic point in the Northern Hemisphere, and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
a) True
b) False
b
Tsunami are always shallow-water waves.
a) True
b) False
b
Before an ocean wave starts to "feel the bottom" at L/2, water in a deep-water wave actually moves ________________ as the wave energy proceeds through it.
a) back and forth
b) with the wave
c) up and down
d) in a circle
d
Tsunami have the longest wavelength.
a) True
b) False
b
As incoming waves bend around a point on shore they change direction in a motion called wave ____________.
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Diffusion
d) Diffraction
b
Identify the following statement as true or false: scientists are concerned about the rate of global increases in temperature.
a True
b False
a
The position and proximity of ______________ is the biggest factor causing the tides.
a) the Sun
b) the Moon
c) the Wind
d) the Depth
b
In order to attain a fully developed sea for a specific wind velocity, there must be sufficient duration and fetch.
a) True
b) False
a
Seismic sea waves are ______________.
a) shallow-water waves
b) deep-water waves
c) tidal waves
d) transitional waves
a
The Moon's greatest distance from Earth is called _________, and its closest approach is called ______________.
a) perihelion, aphelion
b) aphelion, perihelion
c) perigee, apogee
d) apogee, perigee
d
Present day sea level is __________ the average sea level over the past 2 million years.
a) higher than
b) lower than
c) same as
d) can't tell from the geologic record
a
"Coastal Cells" are sections of the coast that are in balance where sediment input equals sediment output.
a) True
b) False
a
The following will happen as a "deep-water wave" approaches the shore:
a) Wave Speed decreases
b) Wave Length decreases
c) Wave Height increases
d) All of the above
e) None of the above
d
Tidal range, pattern, and height coupled with wave action are the most important factors when determining beach profile.
a) True
b) False
a
The period of wind waves is usually expressed in
a) feet or meters.
b) miles per hour, or kilometers per hour.
c) seconds.
d) any of the above.
c
A wave that is in water which is shallower than one-twentieth of its wavelength is considered to be a ______________.
a) breaking wave
b) surf wave
c) shallow-water wave
d) transitional wave
c
Near shore, if the wave crests are two hundred feet apart, the wave will "feel" bottom when the depth is about
a) 20 feet.
b) 50 feet.
c) 100 feet.
d) 200 feet.
c
Release primarily of ______________ into the atmosphere causes depletion of the ozone layer which, in turn, allows for more UV to pass through to the surface of the earth. ____________ is the place that so far has recorded the greatest decrease (about 50%) in this protective layer.
a) ozone, Bora Bora
b) sulfur dioxide, Antarctica
c) chlorofluorocarbons, Antarctica
d) sulfur dioxode, Bora Bora
c
A _________ is a steep tidal wave that moves rapidly upstream. It is generated by the action of the tide in a broad opening of a river mouth.
a) tidal bore
b) tidal datum
c) tidal range
d) tidal bulge
a
Tides are periodic, short-term changes in the height of the ocean surface at a particular place. They are caused by a combination of the gravitational forces of the Moon and Sun on the Earth. The result is that the Sun makes the most important contribution the tidal effect on Earth.
a) True
b) False
b
Identify the following statement as true or false: life on earth would be safer without the greenhouse effect.
a True
b False
b
By their circulation patterns, which one the following best describes estuaries that form where a rapidly flowing river enters the ocean in an area where the tidal range is low or moderate?
a) Fjord estuaries
b) Partially-mixed estuaries
c) Salt-wedge estuaries
d) Well-mixed estuaries
c
The ozone layer is important to life on earth because:
a It acts as a sink for dangerous chloroflurorocarbons.
b It absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
c It helps keep the sun's heat close to the earth's surface.
d It is the primary atmospheric reservoir of oxygen.
b
True or False: Depositional coasts are new coasts in which coastal material is being removed.
a True
b False
b
The east coast of the United States is a submergent (or drowned) coastline.
a) True
b) False
a
The Sun exerts the most influence on the Earth's tide because it is the largest body in the "Earth, Moon, Sun System."
a) True
b) False
b
Which one of the following best describes waves that are formed in a given location and then propagates across the sea surface without further influence from the force that formed it?
a) Forced waves
b) Tidal waves
c) Free waves
d) All of above
e) a & b
c
____________________ do not move laterally through the water, but appear as alternating crests and troughs in a fixed position.
a) Wind waves
b) Fully develop sea
c) Standing waves
d) Deep-water waves
c
A wave break is influenced by wavelength, bottom depth, bottom contour, bottom texture, wind conditions, and shore steepness.
a) True
b) False
a
Los Angeles, San Francisco and the entire coast of California experience what type of tides?
a) Diurnal tides
b) semi-diurnal
c) mixed tides
d) amphidromic
c
Sand enters a coastal cell from _____________ and exits as it falls into ______________.
a) rivers or streams, submarine canyon
b) submarine canyon, rivers or streams
c) volcanoes, beaches
d) winds, beaches
a
Waves moving through water deeper than half their wave length are known as _____________.
a) transitional waves
b) tidal waves
c) tsunami
d) deep-water waves
d
The orbital motion of water particles within a deep-water wave extends to a depth of about half of the wave length.
a) True
b) False
a
The first waves to form on the ocean surface when the wind starts to blow are:
a) gravity waves.
b) internal waves.
c) swell
d) capillary waves.
d
Salt water entering Chesapeake Bay moves toward the eastern shore because of:
a) Bottom bathymetrey
b) Wedging under the fresher bay-water
c) "Coriolis Effect"
d) Opposing river current entering the sea
c
Alternatives to burning hydrocarbon fuels for energy can likely only be attained using nuclear energy.
a) True
b) False
b
There are numerous "Amphidromic Points" located throughout the global ocean.
a) True
b) False
a
At an international meeting in Japan in 1997, leaders and representatives of 160 countries established carbon dioxide emission targets for each developed country. This is called ________________________, which has not been ratified by the U.S. Senate.
a) the Tokyo Protocol
b) the Hiroshima Protocol
c) the U.N. Protocol
d) the Kyoto Protocol
d
Internal waves are thought to be generated by
a) movements of large fish or marine mammals.
b) subsea volcanoes or vigorous hydrothermal vents.
c) energy from wind waves or tides moving into deeper water.
d) movements of the Earth's crustal plates.
c
The distance measured from trough to trough of a wave is
a) the wavelength.
b) the wave height.
c) the wave period.
d) the orbit.
a
The time it takes for a wave to move a distance of one wavelength is known as the wave frequency. The number of waves passing a fixed point in a given amount of time is known as the wave period.
a) True
b) False
b
Shallow water waves are found only near continental margins in water less than 10 feet deep.
a True
b False
b
Any mass of water in a typical orbital wave is transported long distances to far away shores.
a) True
b) False
b
Theoretically, wavelength can be measured from _______________.
a) crest to crest
b) trough to trough
c) trough to crest
d) all of the above
e) a and b
e
Martha's Vineyard near the peninsula of Cape Cod, Massachusetts is composed of primarily of ___________.
a) volcanic deposits
b) tectonic accretion complex
c) terminal moraine deposits
d) river outwash sediments
c
Tides are always shallow-water waves even though their crests pass directly over the deepest parts of the ocean.
a) True
b) False
a
Many problems are associated with global warming. One of problems is that the ocean is becoming more ___________.
a) alkaline
b) hydrate
c) acidic
d) dehydrated
e) None of above
c
The process of erosion that dissolves a rock by chemical breakdown of its constituent minerals is called _____________.
a) dissolution
b) discontinuity
c) decomposition
d) precipitation
a
The place where ocean meets land is usually called the coast. Shore refers to the larger zone affected by the processes that occur at this boundary.
a) True
b) false
b
Barrier islands (choose all that apply)
a lay perpendicular to the mainland
b are separated from mainland by a lagoon
c can migrate when sea level changes
d are long, narrow islands
e b, c, and d
e
If the Stratosphere is cooled by "Global Warming," then Stratospheric ozone will:
a) Decrease
b) Increase
c) Stay the Same
a
What factors are responsible for eustatic sea level change? (choose all that apply)
a Wind and Currents
b Temperature of ocean water
c Tectonic motions
d Volcanic outgassing
e b and c
e
Global warming is probably the result of an enhanced greenhouse effect, the trapping of heat by the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is an unwanted and unnecessary physical effect for life on Earth.
a) True
b) False
b
An estuary is a body of water partially surrounded by land where fresh water from a river mixes with ocean water. Estuaries are classified into two distinct types depending on their origins, 1) drowned river mouths and 2) tectonically-formed estuaries.
a) True
b) False
b
Of the following, which is the best description of tides observed at an amphidromic point?
a A quiet meteorological tide
b A typical mixed tide
c A diurnal tide with large range
d No tide at all
d
Moderately-sized wind waves in the open ocean have a maximum wave height to length ratio of approximately_____________ before they will break.
a) one to seven
b) one to eleven
c) one to thirteen
d) one to thirty-one
a
How long is a lunar day in comparison to a solar day?
a The lunar day is shorter
b The two are equal
c The lunar day is longer
c
Erosional coasts are ______ coasts in which the dominant processes are those that remove coastal material. Depositional coasts are usually _______ coasts that are in a steady state or growing larger due to sediment accumulation.
a) old, young
b) young, young
c) young, old
d) old, old
c
Sea islands are narrow, exposed sandbars that are parallel to, but separated from the land. Unlike sea islands, barrier islands contain a firm central core that was once part of the mainland when sea level was lower.
a) True
b) False
b
It will be exceedingly difficult to limit global warming by decreasing the production of carbon dioxide. We depend on fossil fuel to power the world economy. The world energy demand is projected to increase ________ times between now and 2025, with carbon dioxide emissions _______% higher than today.
a) 2, 30
b) 2.5, 40
c) 3, 50
d) 3.5, 65
d
When talking about great waves such as: tsunami, tides and large seiches (surge waves), the open ocean water depth relative to the wavelength is less than L/2, therefore the waves are called_____________________ waves.)
a) shallow water
b) deep water
c) capillary
d) compressive
e) b & d
a
Alternatives to fossil fuels include __________________________________.
a) nuclear energy
b) renewable resources (wind, solar power, ocean currents, ATOC)
c) a & b
d) none
c
True or False:
Breakwater, jetty, and groin construction can make beaches more vulnerable to erosional processes.

a True
b False
a
Bioamplification can turn seemingly minor pollution issues into very large, pollution problems. True or False?
true
Small quantities of nuclear waste produce major contamination that is very toxic and persistent. True or False?
true
Planets must have an atmosphere for atmospheric circulation to occur. Therefore cyclones can only happen on earth. True or False?
false
The thermocline is best developed in low latitude regions. True or False?
true
Coriolis effect will cause counterclockwise circulation in the northern hemisphere. True or False?
false
The "west wind drift" current is earth's largest ocean gyre. True or False?
false
Western boundary currents are:
a) narrow
b ) deep
c) warm
d) fast
e) all of the above
e
The "ekman spiral" describes how water below the surface flows toward the left of the wind direction in the southern hemisphere. True or False?
true
Deep water circulation, just like surface circulation, is driven by the wind. True or False?
false
There are numerous amphidromic points located throughout the global ocean. True or False?
true
Coastlines subjected to diurnal tides would be the best areas to locate "tidal electrical generating structures". True or False?
true
Wave-cut platforms are a sign that the area is tectonically active and that uplift is an ongoing process. True or False?
true
The fate of most coastlines is to become straight. True or False?
true
What will winter beaches do?
a) steeper
b) erode
c) coarser material
d) all of the above
d
Biology strives for unity, not diversity. True or False?
true
The disphotic zone is a part of the aphotic zone where there is no available light. True or False?
false
Organisms will not move into deeper environments due to osmosis limitations created by increased water salinity. True or False?
true
The pelegic zone is the realm of open water. True or False?
true
Diatoms are the most abundant and most productive of all the photosynthetic plankton. True or False?
true
Copepods are zooplankton and are the most widely distributed animals in the world. True or False?
true
Rhodophytes are red colored algae that can survive as deep as 268 meters. True or False?
true
Animals that have a wide tolerance to salinity are termed stenohaline. True or False?
false
Black-sand beaches in hawaii rank as the most difficult marine habitats to occupy due to their extreme... True or False?
true
What is "residence time", in reference to ocean chemistry?
a The amount of time an atom of an element spends in the ocean
b The amount of time it would take for the ocean to drain
c The amount of time it would take for the ocean to evaporate
a
what is the most abundant ion in seawater?
a) calcium
b) potassium
c) sodium
d) chloride
d
what is the approximate pH of seawater?
a) 4
b) 6
c) 8
d) 10
c
About 36% of the gas dissolved in seawater is oxygen.
True
False
true
What is the most abundant gas dissolved in seawater?
a Carbon dioxide
b Oxyen
c Methane
d Nitrogen
d
What is meant by "conservative constituents"? Choose all that apply.
a Constituents of seawater that occur in constant proportions or change very slowly over time.
b Constituents of seawater that have long residence times.
c The most abundant constituents of seawater.
d Constituents of seawater that occur that are tied to biological or seasonal cycles.
e a,b, and c
e
All of the following ions can be found dissolved in seawater EXCEPT:
a Sodium
b Bromium
c Carbon
d Magnesium
c
If a chemist determines that a sample of seawater has chlorinity of 18.9 parts per thousand, what is the salinity of the sample?
a 33.9 ppt
b 34.1 ppt
c 34.3 ppt
d 34.5 ppt
e 34.7 ppt
b
Of the following gases, which has the greatest volume dissolved in the oceans?
a Nitrogen
b Oxygen
c Carbon dioxide
d Methane
a
According to Oceanography, the average pH of seawater is most like the pH of which of the following liquids?
a Beer
b Rainwater
c Milk of magnesia
d Bleach
d
Which of the following is NOT a possible product of the reaction between dissolved carbon dioxide and seawater?
a Dissolved hydrogen ions
b Dissolved carbonate ions
c Dissolved oxygen gas
d Carbonic acid
c
Oceanography quotes scientist Sylvia Earle as saying, "Sometimes the best... thing to do in the face of an ecological disaster is to do nothing." Of the following, which might form part of Earle's reasoning?
a Bacteria often do a better job than human methods of cleaning up a spill.
b Oil spills do less harm to marine life than most people think.
c Human use of the ocean is usually not affected by oil spills.
d 35% of spilled oil evaporates, so it doesn't effect ocean ecology.
a
Given equal volumes of each, which of the following would constitute the most dangerous pollutant?
a) Crude Oil
b) Used Motor Oil
c) Regular-Grade Gasoline
d) Mid-Grade Gasoline
b
Which of the following statements are true concerning marine oil spills? (Choose all that apply)
a Volatile components evaporate into the air
b Heavy components form tar balls that sink
c Bacteria decompose tar balls on the seafloor
d all of the above
d
What source of pollution accounts for the largest percentage of TOTAL marine pollution?
a Runoff and discharge from land.
b Airborne emissions from land.
c Shipping and accidental spills.
d Ocean dumping
e Offshore mining, oil and gas drilling.
c
All pollutants are man-made.
a True
b False
b
Choose the answer that most accurately describes the composition of the earth's atmosphere:
a Mostly water vapor with 20% oxygen and 10% carbon dioxide
b Mostly nitrogen, with about 20% oxygen and a little water vapor
c Mostly oxygen and water vapor, with about 20% nitrogen
d Mostly carbon dioxide and water vapor, with about 20% oxygen
b
Circulation of the earth's atmosphere is a result of which of the following?
a Uneven air pressure caused by elevation differences near mountains
b Uneven surface temperature caused by internal radioactive decay
c Uneven water circulation patterns caused by Corriolis deflection
d Uneven air temperature caused by variations in solar heating
d
Which of the following are parts of the six-cell global atmospheric circulation model?
a Polar cells, Ferrel cells and Hadley cells

b Atlantic cells, Pacific cells, and Arctic cells
c Solar cells, Tropical cells and Temperate cells
d Low latitude cells, Mid-Latitude cells and High latitude cells
a
Storms are variations in the earth's normal circulation patterns.
a True

b False
a
Coriolis deflection of moving air masses is due to which of the following?
a The temperature of the air
b The gravitational attraction of the moon
c The shape of mountains and valleys
d The spherical shape of the rotating earth
d
Which of the following are true concerning the atmosphere ? (Choose all that apply)
a Cool air descends because it is more dense then warm air
b Warm air rises because it is less dense then cold air
c Rising and descending air masses form convection cells which contribute to atmospheric circulation patterns.
d all of the above
d
Hurricanes spin counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere.
a True
b False
a
Surface currents: (choose all that apply)
a form global patterns within longitudinal bands
b are in zones of rapid density change with depth
c are comprised of water flowing vertically
d are driven by wind friction
e a and d
e
Which of the following is true of western boundary currents? (Select all that apply)
a Cold, shallow and broad
b Narrow, deep, and fast
c Water is derived from mid-latitudes
d Rich in nutrients
e b, c, and d
e
What evidence exists to support equatorial upwelling?
a Absence of the Coriolis effect at the equator
b High biological productivity at the equator
c Lack of strong winds at the equator
b
Ocean currents: (choose all that apply)
a transfer heat from tropical to polar regions
b influence weather
c are strongest at the poles
d distribute nutrients
e all of the above
e
During an El Nino year:
a Upwelling occurs bringing nutrients to the equatorial surface waters
b Warm water moves westward away from South America
c Water temperature remains fairly constant between 0 and 100 meters
d More evaporation occurs over the ocean causing high precipitation in dry areas
d
Identify the following statement as true or false: scientists are concerned about the rate of global increases in temperature.
True
False
true
Identify the following statement as true or false: life on earth would be safer without the greenhouse effect.
True
False
false
Which of the following is NOT a possible consequence of global warming, according to Oceanography?
a Ocean currents and patterns of rainfall are likely to change.
b Islands and low-lying areas will be permanently flooded.
c The quantity of gases dissolved in seawater, including oxygen, will increase.
d The Northwest Passage will be open to shipping during the summer.
c
Which of the following is NOT a possible influence on global warming?
a A clearer atmosphere as volcanic eruptions become more rare.
b Fluctuations in the solar wind causing changes in cloud formation.
c Humans releasing carbon dioxide previously sequestered in rock.
d Ionizing radiation from waste produced at nuclear power plants.
d
Wave base for a deep water wave is defined as 1/2 the wavelength

True or false
true
As a wave travels through an area of deep water, the motion of water molecules travel only up and down as the wave passes through.
True
False
false
Shallow water waves are found only near continental margins in water less than 10 feet deep.
True
False
false
A tsunami can form by which of these events: (Choose all that apply)
a landslides
b volcanic eruptions
c meteorite impacts
d neap tides
e earthquakes
f all of the above
f
Of the following, which is the best description of tides observed at an amphidromic point?
a A quiet meteorological tide
b A typical mixed tide
c A diurnal tide with large range
d No tide at all
d
While visiting the Ganges delta in India, you observe a large mass of water moving upstream, from the ocean into the river. What phenomenon is occurring?
a Flood current
b Ebb current
c Slack water
d Tidal datum
a
Identify the following statement as true or false: the equilibrium theory of tides accurately predicts tides on Earth.
True
False
false
Identify the following statement as true or false: the earth-moon system orbits around a point located inside the Earth.
True
False
true
Approximately how often do spring tides occur?
a Once per week
b Twice per week
c Once per month
d Twice per month
d
What does "perihelion" mean?
a The closest approach of the earth to the sun
b The greatest distance between the earth and the sun
c The closest approach of the moon to the earth
d The greatest distance between the moon and the earth
a
What advantage does the dynamic theory of tides have over the equilibrium theory?
a The dynamic theory includes the influence of both the sun and moon.
b The dynamic theory takes fluid dynamics into account.
c The dynamic theory treats tides as deep-water waves.
d The dynamic theory is based on Newton's law of universal gravitation.
e The dynamic theory includes tidal effects on both land and water.
b
Which of the following terms describes a situation where successive high tides are of different heights?
a Semidiurnal
b Dynamic
c Mixed
d Celestial
b
By definition, a shore contains: (choose all that apply)
a Beaches
b Marshes
c Sand bars
d Sand dunes
e all of the above
e
What factors are responsible for eustatic sea level change? (choose all that apply)
a Wind and Currents
b Temperature of ocean water
c Tectonic motions
d Volcanic outgassing
e all of the above
e
True or False: Depositional coasts are new coasts in which coastal material is being removed.
True
False
false
True or False:
Breakwater, jetty, and groin construction can make beaches more vulnerable to erosional processes.

True
False
true
A "Species" is a group of actually (or potentially) interbreeding organisms that is reproductively isolated from all other forms of living things.

True
false
true
Carolus Linnaeus developed the biological classification used today based upon hierarchy, grouping organisms by:
a Degree of complexity, grade, or class
b Genetic code
c Number of body cells
a
Primary consumers are organisms that get their food:
a From simpler compounds
b From other organisms
c From energy
b
Photosynthesis is more common and more important than chemosynthesis.
True
False
true
Identify the following statement as true or false: the largest of all the biogeochemical cycles is the global phosphorus cycle.
True
False
false
Identify the following statement as true or false: nitrogen accounts for 80% of the dissolved gasses in seawater, and therefore it is abundantly available for use in chemical reactions.
True
False
false
Which of the following environments is the most difficult for organisms to inhabit:
a Sand beaches
b Muddy estuarine marshes
c Cobble beaches
d Black sand beaches in Hawaii
e Hydrothermal vents
d
Which one the following must consume food from other organisms because they are unable to synthesize their own carbohydrates.
a Autotrophs
b Biomass
c Phytoplankton
d Heterotrophs
d