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GCSE AQA Chemistry C1
Terms in this set (63)
The smallest particles that exist that make up an element
substances containing one kind of atom
Substance that contains two or more different elements chemically joined together to form a new substance.
Two or more substances mixed together, but not chemically combined
Particles made of atoms joined together by covalent bonds.
The solid being dissolved
The liquid the solute is being dissolved into.
The dissolved solute and solvent
Means it will not dissolve
A solution that will not dissolve any more solute at a certain temperature
means it will dissolve
How much will dissolve
a separation technique that is used to separate a solid that has not dissolved in a liquid. special paper is used in side a funnel. The filtered solid remains in the filter paper and the filtered liquid passes through the filter into the flask below. Used to separate sand from water.
A process that can be used to separate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids. It works when the liquids have different boiling points. The mixture is heated in a flask so the liquid with the lowest boiling point evaporates first. The vapour is then cooled and condensed to form a pure liquid. This is commonly used to separate ethanol from water.
A separation technique that is used to separate a solid that has dissolved in a liquid and made a solution. The solution is warmed allowing the solvent to evaporate, leaving a saturated solution. As the saturated solution is allowed to cool, the solid will come out of the solution and crystals will start to grow. The crystals can be collected and allowed to dry. This is used to separate salt from a salt solution.
Can be used to separate mixture of coloured compounds. Mixtures suitable for this include inks, dyes and colouring agents. Carried out using paper. A spot of the mixture is placed near the bottom of the piece of paper and the paper is placed in a suitable solvent e.g. water. As the solvent soaks up the paper, it carries the mixtures with it. Different components of the mixture will move at different rates. This separates the mixtures out. Chromatography can be used in drug testing, monitoring pollution and testing foods for additives.
All the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table form a _____.
Found at the centre of an atom containing protons and neutrons
Has a mass of 1 and a charge of +1. Found in the nucleus
Has a mass 1 and a charge of 0. Found in the nucleus
Has a negligable mass and a charge of -1. Found around the nucleus.
Atoms have no overall electric charge because the number of positive protons is _____ to the number of negative neutrons.
The number of protons in an atom is called the ?
The total number of protons + neutrons in an atom
Group 0 - elements in this group are unreactive because they have full outermost shells
conservation of mass
Mass of the products = mass of the reactants
The chemicals before the reaction
The chemicals after the reaction
Unreactive metals like gold are found in their ______ _____.
Compounds that contain enough metal for it to be economical to extract it.
Oxygen is taken away in this reaction.
Oxygen is added in this reaction
Using plants to absorb metal compounds. The plants are then burned to produce ash which contains the metal in it.
Uses bacteria to produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds
The positive copper ions in the solution are attracted to the negative electrode
____________ using scrap iron produces copper from the solution because iron is a more reactive metal then iron.
A mixture of a very large number of hydrocarbons
A compound made of hydrogen and carbon only
A hydrocarbon with single bonds. Has the general formula CnH(2n+2)
Means no more atoms can be added to the molecule as each carbon atom has made 4 single bonds.
Heating and vapourising the oil and allowing it to cool and condense at different temperatures in a fractionating column
A tall tower that is hot at the bottom and cooler at the top
The shortest chains collect at the ___.
The longest chains collect at the ______.
The longer the chain the ______ the boiling point
the shorter the chain the _____ the viscosity
Shorter chains are ____ flammable meaning they are better fuels.
Fuel + oxygen (plentiful supply) → Carbon dioxide + Water
Fuel + (lack of) Oxygen → Carbon monoxide + carbon + water
Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause ____ ____
Sulphur Dioxide and oxides of ________ cause acid rain.
A gas which reduces the amount of heat lost from the Earth by creating a layer which traps the heat and stops it from going into space.
CO₂ - A greenhouse gas so causes global warming. Formed from complete combustion
SO₂ - Dissolves in rainwater to make acid rain which damages limestone buildings and wildlife. Formed by reacting with oxygen in the air as all fuels contain impurities of sulphur
NOx - Nitrogen from the air reacts with oxygen from the air to form this. Dissolves in rainwater to form acid rain
CO - Formed from incomplete combustion - Poisonous as it prevents red blood cells from carrying oxygen round the body.
C - Formed from incomplete combustion. Causes global dimming because it effects the amount of sunlight that can pass through.
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