29 terms

World Cultures Final Vocabulary (China)


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Shang Dynasty
(Dynasty) 1700- 1027 BCE; used oracle bones for writing; built massive walls around their cities; fought many wars using horse-drawn chariots; built mainly of wood, Anyang, is among one of the oldest and most important Shang capital cities
Zhou Dynasty
(Dynasty) 027-256 BCE; rued for a bit less than 800 years; nobles had more power; established a feudal government; built roads for trade; built canals; coins; invented cross-bow and iron plow; irrigation systems; flood-control systems; fell into the warring states period-> lost Mandate of Heaven
Qin Dynasty
(Dynasty) 221-206 BCE; first emperor of China called himself Shi Huangdi; legalist; strong government; uniforms weights and measures; standard coins; set-up a law code; forced labor; built the Great Wall and the terracotta army (for his tomb); harsh ruler (people did not like him)
Han Dynasty
(Dynasty) 200 BCE-220 CE; led by Liu Bang; used Qin form of government; did not rule harshly; reached peak under Wudi; established silk road; Golden age of China (Pax Sinica); Civil service exams; invented paper and other useful things; over 30 dynasties rose and fell after the fall of the _____.
Sui Dynasty
(Dynasty) 518-618 CE; built the Grand Canal
Tang Dynasty
(Dynasty) 618-907 BCE; idea of unification; incredibly strong central government; fostered arts; ruled a western portion of China (caused conflict); revived the CCE issued by the Han; talent and education became extremely important (led to over taxation)
Song Dynasty
(Dynasty) 960-1279 CE; often categorized with Tang; southern portion had rapid economic growth; known for architecture; landscape art and nature art; developed gun powder; porcelain
Yuan Dynasty
(Dynasty) 1271-1368 CE; (Mongols); Kublai Khan (founder); opened China to foreign contacts and trade; tolerant of Chinese culture and government; restored the Grand Canal
Ming Dynasty
(Dynasty) 1368-1644 CE; "brilliant"; peasant's son drove Mongols out of China; returned Confucian moral standards; refurbished and extended great wall; launched voyages (China then withdrew from world); prosperous dynasty; population grew to over 100 million; conquered by another group of foreigners
Qing Dynasty
(Dynasty) 1644-1911; Manchurians; general peace and prosperity; upheld Confucian beliefs; China reached great size; China preserved its tradition in isolation from the West, Dutch were their first trading partners (they kowtowed)
(Philosophy) based on the idea of the 5 basic relationships; filial piety: children should respect their parents and ancestors; people must treat each other with mutual respect and kindness;
Ruled the Han empire from 141-87 BCE; supervised all aspects of his government; followed Confucianism; instituted civil service jobs
(Philosophy) A universal force called Dao: the Way guides all things; humans should live simply and in harmony with nature; the natural order is more important than the social order
(Philosophy) a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order; punishments are useful to maintain social order; thinkers and their ideas should be strictly controlled by the government
Emperor Qin
Land is called China after ____. He called himself Shi Huangdi (first emperor); followed the Legalist philosophy
Empress Wu
Tang empress; concubine of the emperor, then wife, he died and she rose to power for her son; raised the status of women in the Tang dynasty
Silk Road
ancient network of trade routes that were for centuries central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent
Civil service exam
Issued by the Han dynasty; exam that people must take to be able to hold government positions vs. royal family
Yin and Yang
Powers that govern the natural rhythms of life and must be balanced
Dynastic cycle
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
United by Genghis Khan; took over China; Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty in China
Marco Polo
Italian explorer who wrote about his travels to Central Asia and China; only foreigner to serve in Kublai Khan's court
Mao Zedong
ruled China from 1949-1976; father of communism; responsible for the redistribution of land among peasants, 5 year plan, the Red Army, and the failed Cultural Revolution
a political theory that advocates class war and a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs
Hong Kong
Special administrative region; "one country two regions"; allowed to keep its capitalistic economy and other features for 50 years after the British surrender in 1997; valuable port to China
island territory in East Asia; formerly known as FORMOSA
remote and mainly Buddhist territory; known as the "roof of the world"; allegiance of the locals lie with the Dalai Lama; governed as an autonomous region of China
Xi Jinping
current president of China
10 Dynasties
Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing