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Kin test 4
Terms in this set (15)
1. What are the four philosophical claims associated with the value of Philosophy? Explain in detail and give an example.
Personal opinion: Lowest level of truth claim, a persons opinion of individual tastes. Difficult to argue with, not necessarily true for others.
Speculation: Not opinions but are still hard to support evidence with. Majority believe the speculation is true but still have reasons to doubt it. "Is love the most important thing" We will never know for sure but majority believe it.
Probably assertion: Claim with considerable amount of evidence. Evidence speaks to person experience, logic, and immediate isight. We are likely to conclude that it is true or partly true.
Truth Assertion: Claims that are difficult to question. Claim to see if it is wrong to torture people is hard to not agree with because we are making a ethical claim.
2. List, define and give an example of the research methods used in philosophy of PA.
Inductive reasoning - a method of reflection that starts with specific cases or examples and moves toward broad, general conclusions. Stereotypes.
Deductive reasoning - a method of reflection tat starts with one or more broad premises and moves towards specific conclusions. Humans are mortal, I am human, therefore I am mortal.
Descriptive reasoning - a method of reflection that involves looking at one example of an event and describing its essential qualities. examining a different form of basketball and coming to a conclusion that it is in fact the same game.
3. What is the person problem? Explain and give an example of the three positions the book lists.
The person problem states that we must understand the person before we can understand how and why he or she is attracted to games and play.
Materialism - a position on human nature that describes the person as made of only one thing-namely, atoms
Dualism - when applied to the nature of persons, a doctrine that emphasizes that radical distinctiveness and independence of mind and body
Holism - when applied to the nature of persons, a position that underscores the independence and interrelatedness of thought and physicality
4. Define dutylike and playlike sport. What is the relationship between rules, skills and competition? Explain in detail the relationship.
DutyLike Sports: When focus is on extrinsic awards. Physical activity and sport are presented to us as valuable because they help us advance in concrete and desirable ways. Seen as work.
PlayLike Sports: is self-contained, intrinsic awards. Play is the manner in which we approach, embrace, and experience physical activity and sport. Seen as delightful and fun
Rules in sports give a distinct problem to solve and special meaning, from rules from skills needed to follow these rules and from both rules and skills forms competition. Sometimes rules are used to make it more challenging and from that emerges better skills.
5. What are the four values promoted in the field of physical activity? What are the behavioral guidelines?
Health-related physical fitness
Knowledge about the human body, physical activity, and health practices
Activity-related pleasure or fun
1) Follow the rules of the sport
2) Respect your opponent
3) Strive to bring out the best performance in one another
4) Recognize and celebrate athletic excellence
5) Seek opponents who are close to you in ability
6) Care about your opponent's well-being as much as your own
7) Remember that how you play says as much about you as an athlete as the scoreboard does
6) Explain and define the theories of research methods and how they are applied in the history of physical activity.
Modernization Theory: emphasized that the rise of modern sport occurred during the industrial revolution as American society shifted away from agricultural and local economies toward city-based industries, rooted in science and technology.
- Sports changed from relatively unspecialized games to highly organized contests involving many rules and specialized playing positions.
Human Agency: suggesting that people were actively involved in developing or "constructing" their own sports.
- Many local struggles among middle-class and working-class groups that occurred as Bostonians went about structuring their sports and recreational activities.
7.) Explain how the participation of physical activity has changed over the years. 1840-1900, 1900-1950, and 1950 to current times.
1840-1900: American interests in physical activity, specifically in less well-known sports that tied closely to people's ethnic origins, grew throughout the 19th century.
Also, fewer sport opportunities were available for college women.
1900- 1950: Public interest in competitive sport was so pronounced in the early decades of the 20th century that sports replaced gymnastics as the centerpiece in most school physical education curriculums.
1950 to Current Times: The Korean War showed the importance of physical fitness for military preparedness and lead to the increase in health-related exercises.
8.) List and discuss the goals of the history of physical education.
A) To IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE PATTERNS of change and stability in physical activity in particular societies or cultures during specific periods.
B) To ANALYZE PATTERNS of change and stability in physical activity in particular societies or cultures during specific periods.
The central concern is identifying shifts and progression. Trends are examined over specific periods of time on broader societies.
9.) In each era there were significant events that took place to change how physical activity was used. List one from each era and explain the significance and how it contributed to change.
1840-1900: After the Civil War, African Americans attained their freedoms and found their way into mainstream sports. This added on to the diversity of players in sports.
1900- 1950: World War II renewed people's interest in exercise. After the war, educators expanded many school and college physical activity curriculums in response to weaknesses observed in the fitness of wartime military recruits. Led to increase in peoples Physical fitness
1950 to Current Times: The Internet took off in the 1990s. By 2007, anyone with a computer with high-speed Internet service had instantaneous access to worldwide video broadcasts of sport evens as well as news and discussions about sports. Led to increase in sport fans.
10) List, explain and give an example of the research methods used in sociology.
- Survey research: involving questions that collect data from large sample. Giving people questionnaires.
-Interviewing to get broader or deeper info. Focus on smaller number of people, conduct one on one interviews
-Thematic analysis to investigate cultural material (magazines, tv, photos) Magazine photos of male and female athletes were analyzed using categories or themes.
-Ethnography to observe a social setting over a span of time. Takes months or even years. Observing baseball scores over a 2 year period and coming to a conclusion.
-Societal analysis to examine the sweep of social life from the perspective of a broad social theory. Ex, Marxism and modernization.
-Historical analysis to observe large-scale societal change. ways in which development of sport in Canada was related to socioeconomic inequities.
11) What is Sociology of physical activity? What are the major goals associated with this sub-discipline?
- shared beliefs and social practices that constitute specific forms of physical activity (e.g., sport, exercise, physical education). adds to the breadth of knowledge of a well educated kinesiologist
- Goals: Understand how society and culture influence views on physical activity. Understand how physical activity influences society and culture
12) Explain in detail the historical evolution of Sociology in physical activity, including any important publications etc.
- The historical evolution of sociology in physical activity began to take shape in north America in the mod 1960's with the notable influence of English physical educator Peter McIntosh's 1963 book Sport in Society. His analysis of the social significance of sport encouraged several North American scholars to channel their careers toward this emerging area. Throughout the years, the sociology in physical activity continued to grow through the creations of committees and societies for sociology. Journals of sociology and sports were being published throughout the years to expand knowledge in sociology in physical activity. Since the mid-1970's the number of scholars in sociology of physical activity has increased, as has the range of theories and research methods used by these scholars. The hottest topics have focused on social inequities especially those connected with gender, race, ethnicity, wealth, sexual orientation, and culture.
13) Define power, gender, ethnic group, race, and socioeconomic status as defined in the book.
-Power is the ability to do what you want without being stopped by others.
-Gender is different forms of sex It is not an identity you have but rather a set of norms or expectations about how we should behave
-Ethnic group refers to the people who share important and distinct cultural traditions, often developed over many generations.
-Race is a historically, culturally, and socially defined category of social difference typically marked by phenotypical variance among people.
- Socioeconomic status is the wealth, education, and occupational prestige of a person.
14) Describe the ties between participation in PA and power relationships based on gender, race and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
- Girls tend to participate in sports that are socially appropriate,involving less body contact, aesthetic, and less extreme strength. In All but track and field are African Americans represented in disproportionally low numbers. PA requiring expensive equipment, facilities and coaching are beyond reach of low income people.
15) Describe the ties between leadership in PA and power relationships based on gender, race and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
- Women occupy small proportion of coaching and leadership positions. Few Africans reach important leadership positions, even in sports that boast many African players. Wealthy occupy influential leadership positions in popular spectator sports and in some PA. Those at lowest SES rarely find themselves in leadership
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