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Earthquakes and Volcanoes Study Guide
Terms in this set (59)
The force of seismic waves, how high the armswing on a seismogram is
-Dust produced during a volcanic explosion.
-Can cause suffocation, acid rain, climate change, crop failure, machine (airplane and other vehicles) failure.
-P-waves are compression waves. They travel fastest and therefore arrive at a destination quickest.
-S-waves are side-to-side waves. They travel slower because the energy actually travels more distance and arrive at their destination 2nd.
- a large volcanic crater, typically one formed by a major eruption leading to the collapse of the mouth of the volcano.
-A volcano made of pyroclastic material.
-Usually found on the sides of other volcanoes.
-Not usually explosive.
-Ex: Paricutin, Mexico
-Volcanoes made from alternating layers of lava and ash.
-Typically very explosive.
-Usually found over subduction zones.
-Ex: Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Fuji, Vesuvius
- the place on the Earth's surface directly above the focus.
-A break in the Earth's crust where earthquakes usually occur.
-Thick, highly viscous lava, made mostly of crustal material (high in Silica).
-Cooler lava filled with gases.
-Usually found with explosive
- the place within the Earth where the earthquake happens.
-Earthquakes occur as pressure builds up between 2 plates then suddenly releases.
-The plates do not slide smoothly past one another.
-an eruption of water from the heating and pressuring of chambered water.
-A "spring" of magma wells up through the crust to form new land.
- * e.g. Hawaii and Iceland.
- the difference in arrival times between P and S waves.
- *the further an earthquake is away, the greater the lag time will be.
-A mudflow caused by a volcano.
-Heat from the volcano quickly melts snow and ice on the volcano which mixes with soil to made a mud flow.
-Molten rock that has come through the Earth's surface.
-The top "lid" or "plug" under which is active magma.
Hollow tubes in pillow lava that carries and insulates lava inside it
When wet ground temporarily loses strength and acts as a liquid during an EQ
-Hot, low viscosity lava, made from mantle material.
-Lava flows from Hot Spots or divergent boundaries.
-Can form the broad bases of shield volcanoes.
-Molten rock that is underground.
-Earthquake scale based on how an Earthquake feels and the damage it causes.
-Based on observations rather than scientific instruments.
-Lava that erupts under water and cools immediately forming rounded lava rocks.
The push pull wave
- A fast moving cloud of rock, ash, and gas that rushes down the side of a volcano during an eruption.
-Earthquake intensity scale that measures the energy released.
-Logarithmic scale means each number is 10x stronger than the previous.
- Synonym for "earthquake wave."
- the machine that records the earthquake waves.
- a recording of an earthquakes waves
Person who studies earthquakes
-Made from the accumulating layers of lava.
-Usually very broad based with gentle eruptions.
(Love Waves and Raleigh Waves)
-Earthquake waves that travel slowly along the surface of the Earth.
-Scientists think these waves are the ones that produce the most damage.
Side to side wave, slower than P-waves
using three points different distances from one location to find that one location
-The force of an underwater volcano pushes water outwards.
-A landslide or volcanic debris suddenly hits a water source pushing water outwards.
-The "thickness" of a liquid and its ability to flow.
-Thick liquids = high viscosity (corn syrup)
-Easily flowing liquids = low viscosity (H2O)
-an opening in a planet's surface, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from the magma chamber below the surface.
The study of volcanoes-
- A person who studies volcanoes
The distance between crests in waves
Name the differences between the Mercalli and Richter Scale and their purposes.
Mercalli is opinion based and description based. Richter is based on EQ amplitude. Richter's purpose is for science, Mercalli's is to show destruction
Describe an area with a high Mercalli scale and low richter scale and vice versa.
High M Low R, an urban area with poorly constructed buildings
High R Low M, in the middle of the ocean
What are the characteristics of P waves and S waves? Which one leaves the focus first?
P waves: push pull waves, faster than S-waves
S waves: side to side waves, slower than P-waves
They leave at the same time
What happens to seismic energy the further it is from the source?
It's weaker because it spreads out
What are some designs for EQ proof buildings?
Spherical Sliding system with Springs. The building's base is on top of a sphere which is on top of the foundation allowing for the building to move with the EQ.
Is the ground in a new position after an EQ than before?
No the ground returns to its original position after the EQ
What depth provides the strongest EQ's? Why?
Shallow depths provide the strongest EQ's because the ground is cooler and more brittle so when they snap more energy is released and the seismic waves don't have to travel as far to get to the surface
Why is it necessary that you use three circles to triangulate a location?
1 circle = infinite points
2 circles = 2 overlapping points
3 circles = 1 point
How do tsunami's happen?
Giant water displacement in the ocean, underwater volcanoes or EQs, avalanches, mudslides (can occur in lakes, just has to have large water displacement)
List 3 signs a tsunami is going to occur
1. Animals behaving oddly
2. The ocean recedes
3.Small Changes in Earth's magnetic field
List Benefits and Dangers of volcanoes
Benefits: Fertile land, geothermal energy, creates new land, and recreation (hot springs, tourism)
Dangers: Destroys property, kills people, pollutes the air, and unpredicatable
Shield volcanoes Q's: Describe their characteristics, what kind of lava forms it, what tectonic boundary do they form, explosive or gently, what igneous rock is it made of? Name an example
Characteristics: Gentle sloping, broad base, small
Tectonic Boundary: They form on divergent boundaries and hot spots
Explosivity: They are gentle
Rock type: Basalt (oceanic crust)
Composite/strato volcano Q's: Describe their characteristics, what kind of lava forms it, what tectonic boundary do they form, explosive or gently, what igneous rock is it made of? Name an example
Characteristics: Steep, alternating layers of pyroclastic flow and lava flow, tall
Tectonic Boundary: Any subducting plate (oceanic oceanic or continental oceanic)
Explosivity: Exetremely explosive
Rock type: granite
Ex: Mt St. Helens, Mt Fuji
Cinder cone volcano Q's: Describe their characteristics, what kind of lava forms it, what tectonic boundary do they form, explosive or gently, what igneous rock is it made of? Name an example
Characteristics: Strictly Pyroclastic material and ash not as tall as composite, not as small as shield
Tectonic boundary: Anywhere
Explosivity: Can be explosive
Ex: Mt Paracutin, Mexico
What are some signs of a volcanically active area?
Geysers, hot springs, evidence of lahars, and igneous rocks -- GHLI
List signs of an impending volcanic eruption
Volcanic dome swells up, EQ activity increases (volcanic tremor), geyser activity increases, and gas releases out of volcano
Name the relationship between viscosity and how explosive it is.
More viscous = More Explosive
Name the relationship between lava temperature and explosivity
Cooler Lava = More explosive
Hotter Lava = Less explosive
How does hawaii have volcanoes if it isn't on a plate boundary?
It's on a hotspot
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