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unit of meaning in a language


rule of thumb, or shortcut, used to solve a problem


unit of sound in a language

convergent thinking

thinking about only the available facts to solve a problem

functional fixedness

tendency to think of an object as being used only for its usual purpose

incubation effect

allows a person to solve a problem without consciously working on it

difference reduction

problem-solving method that identifies goals and the steps needed to reach them


an example that best represents a particular concept


applying a language's regular rules of grammar to all words, including words that do no fit the rule

divergent thinking

following many leads and using free association to solve a problem

mental retardation

having an IQ score at or below 70

Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale

first modern intelligence test


possessing outstanding talent or the potential to achieve at high levels


knowledge and skills gained from experience

Emotional intelligence

type of intelligence that is involved in success in school, or on the job

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

most widely used intelligence test


extent to which genetic factors can explain traits that vary from person to person

intelligence quotient

number that represents the relationship between mental age and actual age

test-retest reliability

comparison of test scores of a person taking the same test at different times

mental age

intellectual level at which a person is functioning

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