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Arts and Humanities
Scripture and Its Interpretation ch 4: The Writings of the New Covenant
Terms in this set (54)
Greek for "revelation"; (1) a genre of Jewish and Christian literature filled with symbolism and visions intended to unveil unseen realities (e.g., heaven and its inhabitants) as well as historical realities (past, present, and future) in order to offer a critique of contemporary political arrangements in light of the coming kingdom of God; (2) a name for the last NT book (Revelation).
Shorthand term (and the subject of much scholarly dispute), used by some for a worldview ("apocalypticism") and by many for a type of literature ("apocalyptic literature") that reflects a belief in good and evil cosmic powers as well as hope in God's coming intervention to transform the present age of evil/sin into the age of justice/peace.
A language closely related to Hebrew and the lingua franca of the Persian Empire that gradually replaced spoken Hebrew after the Babylonian exile, and was thus the language of some later parts of the OT and of Jesus.
(1) In the Roman era, the westernmost Roman province of Asia Minor; (2) in the modern era, the continent that includes China, India, Russia, and so forth.
A source of truth or practical guidance for a community of interpreters, such as Scripture, the theological tradition, official leaders, reason, human experience, and the leading of the Holy Spirit. See also magisterium; Readable Books; rule of faith; Wesleyan quadrilateral.
From the Greek word kanōn, meaning "measuring stick"; (1) a rule, norm, or guide for faith and practice; (2) especially a list, collection, or catalog of Scriptures (sacred writings) that the Jewish and/or Christian communities consider inspired and authoritative for their faith and practice.
Catholic Epistles (Letters)
The non-Pauline letters of the NT, so called because they have often been thought to have a universal or "catholic" audience, sometimes excluding Hebrews and/or 1-3 John; also called the General Epistles (Letters).
From Greek Christos, meaning "anointed one" and hence "Messiah"
The theological study of and discussion about the person (identity) and work of Jesus.
(1) A formal agreement (originally political) specifying mutual benefits and obligations between the contracting parties; (2) thus, one of the major theological terms for describing the binding relationship of God with Israel and all humankind; (3) occasionally used to refer to the Jewish Scriptures or the NT, as in "Old Covenant" or "New Covenant."
A formal, authoritative summary of basic Christian beliefs. See also Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed; rule of faith.
Cross-shaped existence, referring to the way of the cross or Christlike self-giving, weakness, and suffering.
A term used by some scholars to refer to six of the Pauline Letters to represent the theory that they were written by a later author: Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1-2 Timothy, and Titus; known more neutrally as the "disputed letters" or "contested letters."
Letters attributed to Paul whose authorship is questioned; these include Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1-2 Timothy, and Titus.
From the Greek word for assembly, gathering, or community, ekklēsia; the theology of the church.
From Greek eschatos ("last"); the theology, doctrine, or study of the "last things" and ultimate matters: God's purposes fully and finally realized in history in the resurrection of the dead, the kingdom of God, and the new creation as the age of universal justice and peace.
From the Greek word for "good news," euangelion; (1) a Christian preacher or missionary; (2) a writer of a canonical Gospel (i.e., those according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, John).
A theory about the Synoptic Gospels advocated by Austin Farrer (1904-1968) and championed today by Mark Goodacre, according to which Mark was the first Gospel, Matthew used Mark, and then Luke used both Mark and Matthew, thus eliminating the need for the Q hypothesis.
Four Document Hypothesis
A theory about the origins of the Synoptic Gospels according to which Mark's Gospel was written first and the authors of Matthew and Luke each used two main sources, Mark and Q (variously understood as written and/or oral material), to which each added unique material, labeled M (Matthew's special written and/or oral material) and L (Luke's special written and/or oral material).
A common designation for the Gospel of John.
Literary type, form, or classification (e.g., historical narrative, collection of prophetic oracles, letter, apocalypse).
"Good news"; (1) the salvific message about Jesus preached by his followers ("the gospel"); (2) a genre of early Christian writing that includes accounts of Jesus' activity and/or teachings, whether canonical or not (e.g., "early Christian gospels"; "the Gospel of Thomas"); (3) one of four such accounts included in the NT canon, usually indicated by an uppercase G (e.g., "the Gospel of Luke"; "the Gospels" as the collection of four).
Relating to or influenced by the cultures of both ancient Greece and ancient Rome during the Roman Period.
The lingua franca (common tongue) of the Mediterranean basin following the conquests of Alexander the Great, and hence the language of both the LXX and the NT.
A theory about the origin of the Synoptic Gospels proposed by Johann Jakob Griesbach (1745-1812), who thought that the first NT Gospel was Matthew, that Luke made use of Matthew, and that Mark used both Luke and Matthew; advocated more recently by William Farmer
"Household codes," or ancient guidelines for relationships within the household, adapted by some early Christians and found in several NT letters.
(1) The ancestors of the Israelite nation (from Abraham and Sarah until the time of Moses); (2) an anonymous Jewish-Christian NT writing usually understood as a homily in letter form.
Religious belief understood to be outside the pale of orthodoxy, or acceptable beliefs. Also called heterodoxy.
"Different belief," in contrast to "orthodoxy" (right belief) and normally meaning "heresy."
A short, liturgically centered sermon.
The scholarly abbreviation for the special material from written and/or oral sources that is unique to the Gospel of Luke.
Common tongue or language
The scholarly abbreviation for the special material from written and/or oral sources that is unique to the Gospel of Matthew.
The view, held by most NT scholars, that Mark was the first canonical Gospel written
From the Hebrew mashiach, or "anointed one" (Greek christos), a term originally designating the Israelite king, who was anointed with oil for that role, and later used as a term for a hoped-for divine agent of salvation; applied in the NT to Jesus as the fulfillment of that hope.
New Testament (NT)
The second part of the Christian Bible, containing writings that present the new covenant (Latin testamentum) inaugurated by the coming, life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
Stories and other significant aspects of religious or cultural heritage passed on orally instead of, or prior to, being written down.
Greek for "coming" or "appearance"; the eschatological appearance, or "second coming," of Jesus.
The suffering and death of Jesus Christ
Three of the Pauline letters, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, addressed to two of Paul's younger colleagues but whose authorship is disputed.
Latin for the period of relative peace and stability established by the Roman Empire by means that included conquest and repression.
From Greek pseud-, "false," and onoma, "name"; referring to a writing attributed to an authoritative person from an earlier era who is not the actual author.
Often understood as an abbreviation for the German word Quelle, "source," and used to designate a hypothetical written source of sayings of Jesus common to Matthew and Luke but absent from Mark.
A modern dispensationalist Christian term for the escape of believers to heaven, an idea allegedly found in the Synoptic Gospels, 1 Thessalonians, and Revelation.
The art of persuasive speech
The quality of maintaining right relations with God and with other people, often paired with the term "justice."
The shared knowledge and memories of a social group
The identification and analysis of possible written or oral sources upon which a biblical text is based.
Also called the "Synoptics," the three canonical Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) that share a similar or common perspective on Jesus' life and teaching (synoptic: "seeing together" or "seen together").
The scholarly conundrum of accounting for the similarities and differences among the Synoptic Gospels, including which Gospel was written first and how the Gospels and their supposed sources are interrelated.
From a Latin word (testamentum) that can mean "covenant," referring to the two divisions (Old Testament, New Testament) of the Christian Bible.
Two Document Hypothesis
A theory about the origin of the Synoptic Gospels according to which Mark's Gospel was written first and the authors of Matthew and Luke each used and adapted two main sources, Mark and Q, but also knew and used other oral traditions.
The seven Pauline letters whose authorship by Paul is not in question: Romans, 1-2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon.
Books within the Writings of the Tanak / Old Testament—Job, Psalms, and Proverbs—that emphasize practical wisdom; in the NT, James is often considered to be wisdom literature.
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