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Scripture and Its Interpretation ch 5: Significant Noncanonical Writings
Terms in this set (30)
Greek for "revelation"; (1) a genre of Jewish and Christian literature filled with symbolism and visions intended to unveil unseen realities (e.g., heaven and its inhabitants) as well as historical realities (past, present, and future) in order to offer a critique of contemporary political arrangements in light of the coming kingdom of God; (2) a name for the last NT book (Revelation).
Shorthand term (and the subject of much scholarly dispute), used by some for a worldview ("apocalypticism") and by many for a type of literature ("apocalyptic literature") that reflects a belief in good and evil cosmic powers as well as hope in God's coming intervention to transform the present age of evil/sin into the age of justice/peace.
From the Greek adjective meaning "hidden"; (1) the books of the Greek OT (Septuagint) not included in the Hebrew canon or the Protestant canon but included in the Catholic and Orthodox canons (see also deuterocanonical; Readable Books); (2) certain early Christian writings not included in the NT (usually "NT Apocrypha").
A modern designation for a corpus of the earliest preserved noncanonical Christian writings, dating from the late first and second centuries.
From the Greek word kanōn, meaning "measuring stick"; (1) a rule, norm, or guide for faith and practice; (2) especially a list, collection, or catalog of Scriptures (sacred writings) that the Jewish and/or Christian communities consider inspired and authoritative for their faith and practice.
The name of the last stage of the ancient Egyptian language, written primarily with a modified Greek alphabet; Coptic writings include some of the gnostic Nag Hammadi texts, certain NT apocrypha, and some early translations of the NT.
Dead Sea Scrolls
A series of more than 800 ancient Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts (and some Greek fragments) of biblical and extrabiblical writings, dating from the third century BCE to the first century CE, and discovered in eleven caves at Qumran, near the Dead Sea, between 1947 and 1956.
Referring to a "second canon," a Roman Catholic designation for the seven books (plus additional portions of Esther and Daniel) from the Septuagint that are not found in the Hebrew canon or in Jerome's Latin Vulgate but are included in the Catholic (and Orthodox) canon.
(1) The general councils (Nicaea, 325; Constantinople, 381; Ephesus, 431; Chalcedon, 451; Constantinople II, 553; Constantinople III, 680-681; Nicaea II, 787) attended by representatives of the entire undivided church; (2) also, for Roman Catholics, additional councils up to and including the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965).
Epistle (or Letter) of Barnabas
A second-century document included in the Apostolic Fathers, attributed to Barnabas, the companion of the apostle Paul, which uses typology to interpret the OT.
A separatist Jewish group that rejected the legitimacy of the temple leadership in Jerusalem and established themselves in various places; it is likely that some moved into the Judean desert during the Hasmonean period to form an ascetically oriented community at Qumran, which is generally believed to be responsible for copying, composing, and preserving the Dead Sea Scrolls.
From the Greek word eucharistia, meaning "thanksgiving"; the act, or sacrament, also known as "(Holy) Communion" or the "Lord's Supper," in which the death of Jesus is remembered and his living presence experienced.
First Jewish Revolt
A Jewish uprising against the Romans, beginning in 66 CE, that resulted in the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE and ended with the fall of Masada in 74 CE.
Literary type, form, or classification (e.g., historical narrative, collection of prophetic oracles, letter, apocalypse).
"Good news"; (1) the salvific message about Jesus preached by his followers ("the gospel"); (2) a genre of early Christian writing that includes accounts of Jesus' activity and/or teachings, whether canonical or not (e.g., "early Christian gospels"; "the Gospel of Thomas"); (3) one of four such accounts included in the NT canon, usually indicated by an uppercase G (e.g., "the Gospel of Luke"; "the Gospels" as the collection of four).
The written compilation of oral proto-rabbinic teachings prepared near the end of the Tannaitic period, ca. 200 CE, and later included in the two versions of the Talmud.
A town in Upper Egypt near which scrolls written by various gnostic authors were discovered in 1945.
Nag Hammadi library
The collection of mostly gnostic ancient Coptic texts dating from the mid-second to the mid-fourth centuries CE and found near Nag Hammadi in 1945.
Referring to important religious texts in early Judaism and Christianity that are not included in their scriptural collections (canons); also called parabiblical—literally, "surrounding the Bible"—or extracanonical.
orthodox, orthodoxy, Orthodoxy
(1) Beliefs that conform to the tradition and accepted as authoritative, as opposed to heresy or heterodoxy; (2) when capitalized, a branch of Christendom.
Greek for "coming" or "appearance"; the eschatological appearance, or "second coming," of Jesus.
The period of early Christian history (ca. 70-150 CE) after the presumed death of the original apostles, during which some of the later NT and the earliest non-New Testament Christian writings were composed.
Referring to a form of Jewish scholarship contemporary with Jesus and the earliest Christians that anticipated later rabbinic Judaism (after 70 CE).
From Greek pseud- ("false") and graphai ("writings"); (1) falsely attributed, pseudonymous writings; (2) a collection (the OT Pseudepigrapha) of noncanonical ancient Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings from ca. 200 BCE to 200 CE that purport to originate with a biblical character.
A site near the northwest shore of the Dead Sea that was home to a community of sectarian Jews (likely Essenes), where, beginning in 1947, hundreds of ancient scrolls and fragments were found in nearby caves.
Latin for rule of faith.
rule of faith
A summary account of basic Christian teachings eventually represented in the Apostles' Creed (and similar texts) that serves as a standard of orthodoxy and a theological framework for scriptural interpretation.
From the Latin scriptura, "writings"; sacred writings, especially those of Judaism and Christianity.
Hebrew for the place of the dead.
Transcription of the symbols (letters and characters) of a source language (e.g., Greek or Hebrew) into corresponding letters in another, target language (e.g., English) to facilitate pronunciation of the words of the source language.
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