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Social Studies Finals Study Guide
Terms in this set (223)
where did Buddhism begin?
through the Silk Road
how did Buddhism spread to China?
who did Buddhism appeal most to?
to end suffering
what was Buddhism's goal?
- desire is the reason for unhappiness
- suffering is normal for life
- all life is to be respected
- respect the rights of other ppl
what are the basic teachings of Buddhism? (4 Noble Truths)
what did Taoism say the best way of living was?
best way to live due to showing us how to avoid conflict & desire
Taoism is described as the...
making life easy & simple; avoid conflict and desires; carefree
what is Taoism about?
it was founded by a great thinker who studied & had lots of wisdom
how was Confucianism founded?
built around getting people to behave properly
what was Confucianism founded for?
teaches respect for family, elders & ancestors; logic & learning is important; become better by studying/serving the government
what does Confucianism teach you?
what is part of most Chinese philosophies?
states that the spirit of the dead stays w/ a family to look after them
what does ancestor worship state?
no real group that is in control; Buddhism becomes popular after people leave Confucianism since it can't help China reunite
what was the Period of Disunion and what happens due to it?
dynasties later didn't want to make the mistakes of the Han, so instead of giving jobs to nobles, they gave them out due to ability; these people were called scholar-officials
what did the tang dynasty do?
had to study for years and pass a series of incredibly difficult tests
what did the scholar-officials have to do?
you were killed
what happened if you were caught cheating in ancient China?
mostly about the teachings of Confucius
what were the tests in ancient China about?
when did the tang dynasty begin and end?
-was 1 of the dominant dynasties during the Medieval Times
-was the 1st to implement Meritocracy
-improved irrigation ditches & managed a 20,000 mile long postal network
-focused on literature, creating almost 50,000 poems that still exist
-saw a growth of Buddhism
-considered "golden age" of China
describe the tang dynasty
when did the song dynasty begin and end?
-continued many practices from tang dynasty
-put civil service exams to improve quality of government officials
-population doubles due to advanced farming techniques
-created public schools to improve education
-created retirement homes for elderly lower classes
describe the song dynasty
-reached its height under Kublai Khan who opened China to outside traders
-reopened Silk Road to improved trade, which led to Chinese ideas & inventions to Europe: helped Europe get out of dark age
describe the yuan dynasty
who started the great wall of China?
to fend against Mongolian invaders
why was the great wall created?
- Confucianism played a huge role in Chinese society
- China traded over land and sea
- China made tea, paper, compass, gunpowder, etc.
- over time China grew in strength as an empire & only the smart could be government workers (meritocracy)
what are 4 things to remember about China?
China was near the Pacific Ocean, which meant a lot of trading; China was also near the Himalayan Mountains and near the Gobi desert; since there was a small open spot to attack, China created the Great Wall
what was China's geography?
important for farming
what was the importance of the Huang and Chang Rivers?
90% of the world's rice
how much of the world's rice comes from Asia?
what trade route ran through China (and was very important)?
paper, gunpowder, paper money, compass, woodblock printing, etc.
what inventions came from China?
what dynasty created Chinese writing?
China needed money for taxes
why did China reopen the Silk Road after closing it?
began as pictures, but were simplified over time
what did Chinese letters look like?
up and down
what direction did Chinese letters go?
allowed Chinese to travel more efficiently and explore the world more than any other nation at the time
what did the compass allow China to do?
used more for fireworks than weapons at first, but then were used as fire rocket-powered arrows
what was gunpowder used for?
360 million/6% of the world's population
how many people are following Buddhism around the world?
China and Japan
what are the 2 biggest countries that contain Buddhism?
what is the founder of Buddhism called?
who was Buddhism found by?
Siddhartha Guatama was born in the modern day country of what?
all people grow old, all people get sickness, all life dies, and he saw a person who gave everything up and seemed happier
what 4 things did Siddhartha see when he left his father?
gave up everything (including life and riches); lived a life of poverty for 6 years
what did Siddhartha do after seeing those 4 things?
neither self indulgence nor self ignorance
what is the "middle path"?
calms mind and body; finds middle ground
what does meditation do to your body, according to Buddhism?
suffering is a part of life; suffering comes from desire; there is an end to suffering; follow the noble eightfold path to end suffering
what are 4 noble truths?
right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration
what is the noble eightfold path?
unselfishly, and you are supposed to put them before you
how are you supposed to treat other people
the 4 noble truths and the eightfold path are followed ________
theravada and mahayana
what are the 2 main branches of Buddhism?
people need help to reach Englightenment
what does Mahayana believe?
every person can reach Enlightenment if they follow the eightfold path
what does Theravada believe?
what are people that have reach Enlightenment called?
what do Buddhists and Hindu's believe?
what determines what you get reincarnated as?
what is the place where there is no more suffering or rebirth
who is the spiritual leader of the Tibetan Buddhists who follow Mahayana Buddhism?
what is made out of monks, nuns, and the laity?
provides peaceful place; repent in robes; 5 moral precepts; abstain from use of drugs/alcohol; meet 2 times a month to confess; translate ancient scriptures; shaved heads; 227 rules to follow
describe the Buddhist Monastic life?
what are Buddhist sacred writings?
powered by wind, water, or hands; turn in prayer; releases special prayers/blessings
describe dharma wheels
flags with prayer
describe prayer flags
a place set aside for prayers and devotion
place to pray publicly
same tree Buddha sat under when he reached Enlightenment
describe the Bodhi tree
describe the lotus flower
containers to hold relics
what are stupas?
Sahara Desert, Sahel, Savanna, Niger River Delta, Rainforest
What are the 5 geographic regions of Africa?
A griot is a story-teller in the African society who would memorize the stories of their group
What is a Griot?
Griots were important because written language was not a thing back then, so they couldn't write down their history. This is why there are almost no records of African history.
Why were Griots important?
In the rainforest
where was gold found?
In the Sahara desert
where was salt/halite found?
Silent bartering is when 2 traders trade items without any speech or spoken words.
What is silent bartering?
1. 2 people want to trade. 2. Those 2 people go to the special place to do this. 3. Guards help conduct the trade. 4. 1 trader enters and put outs their item and leaves. 5. The 2nd person comes in and puts out their item. 6. The first trader comes back and either accepts or renegotiates. 7. if they accept, they take their trade items, and if they disagree then they find a new trade
how does silent bartering work?
Taxed the traders by taking some of their goods, silent bartering, and creating a second city for foreigners (including traders)
what 3 things did Ghana's king do to make his kingdom strong?
Mansa Musa was am Islamic king who ruled the Mali kingdom in West Africa.
Who was Mansa Musa?
He gave away riches to cities while taking a Hajj to Mecca with 60,000 people. He ruled until 1337.
What is he remembered for?
Berbers spread the Islamic traditions to West Africa. African Kings blended Islam with African traditions and brought architects and scholars to build mosques and teach people Islam.
How did Islam spread to West Africa?
What is the order for the African Kingdom?
Grasslands; a warm area with lots of small plants
What is a Savanna?
little-no rainfall; few plants
What is the Sahara Desert?
triangular shaped land form at the mouth of a river; great for farming; civilizations started here
What is the Niger River Delta?
Region of savanna on the Southern border; hot
What is the Sahel?
Central Africa; lots of rain and trees
what is the Rainforest?
The first African civilization ruled by a king who set up the system of silent bartering
What is Ghana?
A Berber is a trader who brought Islam to Africa
What is a Berber?
Mali is the civilization that succeeded Ghana. It was ruled by Mansa Musa.
What is Mali??
Songhay is the civilization that succeeded Mali. Not much is known about this kingdom.
What is Songhay?
What place is considered a very educational city?
Written language, which led to written history, Muslim laws, books, and schools
What did the Muslims bring to Africa?
Since they created their empire in a desert, it covered parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia, and it reached up to 130o F. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers were the most important because it was one of their only water sources. Another water source was oases. Arab tribes were nomadic because of these limited water sources.
Describe the geography of Arabia.
People who move around often and don't stay in one area for long periods of time
What are nomads?
Muhammad was a merchant who claimed he received a message from the angel Gabriel stating that there is only one God. Because of this, the Qu'ran was created. Eventually, Muhammad's ideas were not taken peacefully, and he was kicked out of Mecca. Afterwards, he built an army, and returned to Mecca and fought for 3 years before conquering them and destroying their idols, which allowed monotheism to come back.
Who was Muhammad?
The five pillars of Islam were a set of 5 rules all Muslims must live by. They contained:
prayer (salah)- pray 5 times a day
fasting (sawm)- don't drink or eat during Ramadan
charity (zakah)- donate 2.5% of your income to charity
Declaration (shahadah)- daily statement about beliefs
Pilgrimage (the Hajj)- travel to Mecca
What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
They used water wheels, which were powered by the river. Buckets on the water wheel picked up water as they passed through, and dumped the water into an aqueduct, an artificial channel for conveying water, typically in the form of a bridge across a valley or other gap, and brought the water to the desert.
How did the Arabian people get water to people in the desert region?
The Islamic Empire became a world center for learning. They invented algebra, the concept of zero, chess, and polo, paper and studied medicine and space. They created the first hospital. Many people from all over the world came to Baghdad to study, and they translated Greek and Roman texts.
Why would the Islamic empires be considered a center for learning?
Very important. It was the only way for, example, Europe to trade with China. Either they would have to go through the north, which was filled with barbarians, and very unsafe, or go through the south, which was Arabia. Arabia charged people that passed through fees, but it was much safer than before, and gave Arabia much control of the Spice Trade.
How important was trade to this area?
Barbarians and enemy tribes
Why was trading in this area dangerous?
People that came through and traded soon converted the Islam and learned the language so their fees would be greatly declined while going through and trading. Then, those people would spread the religion to wherever they were going next, and back at home. It also spread through violence when Muhammad was kicked out of Mecca and then returned with an army. After 3 years, Muhammad conquered Mecca and destroyed their idols.
How did Islam spread?
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all alike because they are all monotheistic. They all believe in one God, and the teachings of that God. They all have different religious texts, like Christians have the Bible, Islam has the Qu'ran and Judaism has the Torah. They also all have their own place of worship. Islam has the Kaaba and mosques, Christians have churches, and Jews have synagogues. (See Arabia #6 Lecture)
How are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alike?
1 billion/ 1/7 of the world's population
How many Muslims are there?
Muhammad was the messenger, or ____________, of God
the desert of Arabia
Islam began in....
570, Mecca/Saudi Arabia
Muhammad was born in ________ C.E. in ________
The words that Gabriel told to Muhammad became the ....
"Allah" means ...
belief of one god
belief of multiple gods
house of worship or mosque/masjid
The first _________ or _________ was built in Medina.
Central Asia, North Africa, India, and Spain
In the next 100 years, Islam spread to ___________, ___________, ___________, and _____________
astronomy, hospital, algebra, medicine, translated texts
Legacies of Islam include....
testimony of faith
what is the shahadad
prayer (5 times)
what is the salah
what is the zakah
fasting (during Ramadan)
what is the sawm
pilgrimage (to Mecca)
what is the hajj
ritual for washing before praying
what is the "wudu"
separated into sections
men and women are...
covering for women in front of men and strangers for their heads
what is the "hijab"
anyone who leads prayer
what is the "imam"
divit in wall to show direction of Mecca
what is the "niche"
they do not worship anyone but God/Allah
why are there no statues or pictures in the mosque?
with words of the Qu'ran
how are mosques decorated?
The Qu'ran is written in ....
stories about Muhammad's actions written by the followers of Muhammad
what is the "hadith"
guidelines for Muslim's daily life
what is the "shari'ah"
heaven is paradise. hell is endless desert
what is their concept of afterlife?
90% of Muslims are _________; 10% are __________. Many Muslims in Iran and Iraq are ______________
1. declare the name of the baby. 2. shave the baby's head. 3. weigh the hairs. 4. give the weight in gold to the poor
what is the "aqiqah"
holiest time of year, starts on start of 9th month
what is "Ramadan"
fasting during Ramadan
what is sawm?
festival of the end of the 9th month
what is the Eid al Fitr?
End of Feudalism
They fought over who should lead Christendom
What did Pope Leo and Charlemagne fight over?
They fought over who should appoint the bishops. King Henry IV wanted to pick the bishops, but Pope Gregory thought he didn't have enough authority.
What did King Henry IV and Pope Gregory fight over?
After standing outside the Vatican for 3 days, King Henry IV confirmed that the Pope was higher than the king.
Who won? King Henry IV or Pope Gregory?
He taxed the Church
What did Prince John do?
They created the Magna Carta
How did the nobles respond to Prince John's actions of taxing the church?
A document created by the nobles that stated basic laws King John had to follow
What is the Magna Carta?
It gave more power to the nobles
Who did the Magna Carta give more power to?
A war for religious reasons
What are the Crusades?
Pope Urban II ordered them in 1095 after the Byzantine emperor sent a message asking for help against the Seljuq Turks
Who started the Crusades?
Salvation/instant entry into Heaven if dead, or riches by taking the enemy's stuff
What was promised to the Crusaders?
Who won the Crusades?
A disease that spread across Asia and Europe
What was the Black Death?
It was brought into Europe by sailors in 1346, and was thought to spread by fleas on rats.
How did the Black Death spread?
1/3 of Europe's population (25 million people)
How many people died in the Black Death?
Peasants had to work harder to make up for the dead, and they demanded to be paid for their work.
How did the Black Death contribute to the end of Feudalism?
The long bow.
What new weapon(s) were invented?
It allowed knights to not need armor/get so close to enemies since they could be shot from such a long distance
How did the new weapons affect the old Feudal system?
"land of rising sun"
What is Japan known as?
In eastern Asia/all the way to the east
Where is Japan located?
What is the most populated city in the world?
Four (main) islands
How many islands make up Japan?
What state is roughly the size of Japan?
What percentage of land is used for farming?
Food, transportation, and isolation
How did the Japanese use the ocean around them?
What society highly influenced Japan?
What modern day country allowed Chinese ideas to travel to Japan?
Buddhism, rice, divine emperor, love of nature, and writing
What Chinese influences reached Japan?
What was the main idea that was about appreciating the small things in life for their beauty and that women were supposed to act calm, respectful and be beautiful?
What was very popular in Japan?
Tale of Genji
What was the world's first novel that was written in 1000 A.D.?
Who wrote the Tale of Genji?
Always had three lines; syllables were 5, 7, 5; had a deep meaning
What were the three rules of haikus?
Pureland and Zen
What did Buddhism eventually split into in Japan?
Chanting the name of the Buddha
What did Pureland Buddhism stress?
Which form of Buddhism was most popular with the poor in Japan?
Which form of Buddhism was most popular with the samurai?
Self-discipline and meditation
What did Zen Buddhism practice?
What is more important than book learning and logic to the Zen Buddhism?
Rocks and sands
What did Zen gardens consist of?
What was the name of the Prince that wanted people to follow Buddhism?
Because China was rich and powerful
Why did Prince Shotoku want Japan to be more like China?
The prince wanted more power for himself
What made the people angry at Prince Shotoku?
What was the name of the reforms used to make Japan more like China?
Who took over all the farmland outside of the capital?
Who did the emperor assign to oversee the farmland?
Who was the leader in Japan Feudalism?
Who were the land owners that supported the Shogun?
Who protected the Daimyo?
What was the order of Japanese Feudalism?
Who rose out of the Taika Reforms?
What did the Samurai follow? Was also known as the "way of the warrior".
Loyalty, self-discipline, respect
What were the rules of the Bushido?
Who tried to conquer Japan after conquering China?
What "divine winds" or storms stopped the Mongols twice from invading Japan?
Samurais began wandering Japan, randomly fought each other and started bothering peasants
How did ninjas rise?
What were the ninjas made out of?
Being invisible and impossible to beat
What reputation did ninjas build up?
What did ninjas prefer to fighting?
What did ninjas try to avoid?
What did ninjas mostly train as?
"Kill or be killed"
What was the ninja motto?
Golden age of Japanese literature
What does the Tale of Genji reflect?
100s of years
how long did the Bushido code guide Japan for?
What was the primary weapon of choice for samurais?
If you made 1,000s of these, your wish would be granted.
Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution
where did the Renaissance start?
1. the black death: had killed a lot of peasants, and peasants were demanding money for work
2. 100 years war
3. crusades: even though the Muslims won, the Europeans discovered ancient Greek and Roman writings
why did feudalism end?
1. they had strong ties with the Byzantine and Muslim merchants
2. each city state specialized in one commercial activity
why were the Italian City States so rich and powerful?
a. milan: metal goods and armor
b. florence: banking and textile
c. venice: asian goods
what did each italian city state specialize in?
knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome was rediscovered; the Crusades made Europe eager to learn about the world around them; scholars thought Greek and Roman writings would help solve problems
why did people become interested in ancient cultures?
people who tried to learn about many subjects, such as Latin, Greek, history, and math; devoted themselves to studying ancient writings; people who believe that human achievement on earth is better than the afterlife
what are humanists and what do they believe in?
indulgences, which were basically tickets to heaven, the inquisition, which tortured people to stay in the catholic church, the church seemed to be going against their own teachings, they were enforcing many teachings that people saw pointless, all church activities were to be said in latin, which was not the common language of the people, Pope Leo X spent tons of the church's money, and the pope had people pay to become priests.
what problems did the Church create during the Renaissance?
a catholic monk who eventually made his own protestant church
who was Martin Luther?
95 arguments Martin Luther made against the church. They were later posted up on the church walls and people created copies of these with the printing press
What are the 95 Theses?
he gets excommunicated and starts his own faith
what happens to Martin Luther?
the protestant church reformation
what movement did Martin Luther start?
shakespeare, michaelangelo, leonardo di vinci, the medicis, niccole machiavelli, william harvey, nicolaus copernicus, andreas vesalius, galileo galilei, and isaac newton
who are some of the famous individuals and artists of the time period?
protestant: salvation is the free gift of God, you cannot earn it; only God can forgive sins; regular church members help make decisions
both: Jesus lived, was crucified, and resurrected; communion and baptism are very important
catholic: Jesus offers salvation, but you must work to get it; popes can forgive sins; only clergy make decisions in the church
what is the difference between Catholics and Protestants?
council of trent: no more SELLING indulgences for money, but they could be given out freely; priests must live near the church
how did the catholic church respond to the Reformation?
1. food is turned into blood in the heart; arteries and veins are empty and serve as air tubes
2. the same blood is constantly recycled through the heart. arteries and veins carry the blood to and from the heart, which acts like a pump
3. observed that a bound artery would fill with blood in the section nearer the heart, while the portion away from the heart would empty.
4. many physicians were unwilling to accept the idea that human blood is constantly being recirculation through a closed system of arteries and veins
5. his research is considered the origin of the modern science of physiology
who was william harvey and what did he do?
1. the earth is at the center of the universe. it stays fixed in a permanent place, with the sun and the planets revolving around it
2. the earth and other planets revolve around the sun
3. spent years mapping the locations of the planets, using complex mathematical calculations
4. his ideas were rejected by most people, many of whom claimed that it would take more than mathematics to explain how the planets moved
5. his theory provided the foundation for the modern science of astronomy
who was nicolaus copernicus and what did he do?
1. it is a sin to dissect dead human bodies
2. to completely understand human anatomy, it is necessary to dissect the dead bodies of humans, not those of animals
3. dissected large numbers of human bodies and made precise sketches of what he saw
4. his ideas were accepted by many, but he wrote a book to defend his ideas against a few powerful critics
5. his work proved wrong many ancient ideas about human anatomy and helped begin the modern sciences of anatomy and physiology
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