PPME Block 5 The Arctic
______________ made the discovery of a Northwest Passage a priority for early explorers.
The possibility of shorter shipping routes between Europe and Asia
Until the mid-______________ century, virtually all of the Arctic's population was limited to settlements of indigenous people; today it is only around 10 percent.
During the 20th century, Arctic exploration was carried out mainly for commercial reasons.
On 6 April 1909, America's Robert Peary and Matthew Henson were the first to ______________.
reach the North Pole
The Ilulissat Declaration, signed by the five littoral Arctic nations in May 2008, ______________.
renewed their commitment to keeping the Arctic a region of "peace and cooperation"
Which nation does not possess territory that lies within the geographic definition of the Arctic?
Approximately ______________ percent of the Arctic population lives in Russia.
The Arctic's indigenous peoples ______________.
have survived and even thrived despite the challenges of living in the Far North
______________ is a member of the Arctic Council.
All the answers are correct
The effects of climate change have NOT made Arctic waters safe for commercial shipping
The threat of nuclear attack prompted the U.S. and Canada to construct the ______________ across the Arctic to detect inbound Soviet bombers and missiles.
The Arctic Council is a high-level forum of the eight Arctic nations that was NOT established to ______________.
resolve security issues
Despite the endorsements of several presidents and high ranking military officers, the U.S. has yet to ratify United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
Which of the following is NOT a reason the IMO is proposing mandatory measures to reduce risks to Arctic shipping?
The increasing likelihood of terrorist infiltration
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) was chartered to ______________.
maintain a regulatory framework for shipping
The climatic Arctic is the region defined by the line where average temperature for the warmest month of the year does not exceed _______________.
Approximately ______________ people live in the Arctic (as defined by the Arctic Human Development Report).
The Arctic's indigenous peoples have long been content to ______________.
live a subsistence lifestyle
Which of the following is NOT a reason for increasing the Arctic's relative importance to U.S. national interests?
Dramatic increase in Russian military infrastructure
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