Endocrine System Chp 14

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Terms in this set (...)

Endocrine Glands
Type of glands that secrete hormones; called ductless glands
Exocrine Glands
Type of glands that secrete into ducts (sweat glands,sebaceous glands,glands that secrete digestive enzymes)
Tropic Hormones
Hormones that are "aimed at" a target
Biorhythm(s)
Describes this pattern of hormone secretion:cortisol secretion is highest in the morning(8am),lowest in the evening(midnight)
Hormones
Endocrine secretions that are classified as proteins, protein-like substances, or steroids
Target Tissue (organ)
Describes a specific tissue or organ to which a hormone binds
Negative Feedback Control
Describes, for example, this sequence of events: corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH),which in turn stimulates the secretion of cortisol; as the blood level of cortisol increases, it shuts off the further secretion of ACTH and CRH
Biorhythm
An example is a circadian rhythm
Biorhythm
Jet lag and night shift work alter this pattern of hormone secretion
Positive Feedback control
A self-amplificaion cycle (give me more) in which a change is the stimulus for an even greater change in the same direction
Receptor
Hormones bind to these special areas in the cell or on the surface of the cell membrane of the target tissue
Biorhythm
An example is the menstrual cycle
Second chemical messenger
Cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP)
Pancreas
Beta and alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans
Ovaries
Gonads that secrete estrogen and progesterone
Thyroid gland
Secretes T3, T4, and calcitonin
Hypothalamus
Secretes releasing hormones
Posterior Pituitary Gland
Secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
Posterior Pituitary Gland
Called the neuropophysis
Anterior Pituitary Gland
The hypothalmus and this gland are parts of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Called the adenohyphysis
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Secretes tropic hormones such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), ACTH, growth hormone (somatotropic hormone), and the gonadotropins
Adrenal Medulla
Secretes the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
Adrenal Cortex
Secretes the steroids-glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens
Adrenal Medulla
Target gland for ACTH
Parathyroid glands
Low plasma levels of calcium stimulate these glands to secrete PTH
Pancreas
Secretes insulin adn glucagon
Thyroid gland
Uses iodine to synthesize its hormones
Thyroid gland
Target gland of TSH
Adrenal Medulla
Secretions of this gland contribute to the fight-or-flight response
Testes
The gonad that secretes testosterone
Thyroid gland
This gland is associated with these words: isthmus, follicular cells, colloid, and iodine
Thymus gland
This gland plays an important role in immunity and involutes, or shrinks, after puberty
Adrenal Cortex
Secretes the hormones that are concerned with sugar, salt and sex
Pineal Gland
A cone-shaped gland located in the brain; secretes melatonin; called the biological clock
Thyroid gland
Gland that enlarges as a goiter
Parathyroid gland
Glands that are sometimes embedded within the thyroid gland; removal causes hypocalcemic tetany
Growth hormone
Also called somatotropic hormone; this anterior pituitary hormone stimulates the growth of the musculoskeletal system
Insulin
The only hormone that lowers blood glucose
Steroids
Cortisol, aldosterone, and testosterone
Catecholamines
Epinephrine and norepinephrine; sympathomimetic hormones
glucagon
Pancreatic hormone that increases blood glucose
Parathyroid Hormone
Hormone that acts on three target organs (bone,kidneys and intestine) to increase the blood levels of calcium
T3 & T4
TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release these hormones
Gonadotropins
Include follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH)
Prolactin
Stimulates the breasts to make milk; also called lactogenic hormone
oxytocin
Posterior pituitary hormone that enhances labor
calcitonin
parafollicular cells, thyroid gland, stimulates osteoblastic activity
T3 & T4
Iodine containing hormones that regulate basal metabolic rate (BMR)
ADH
Posterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water
releasing hormones
hypothalamic hormones that control the hormonal secretion of the anterior pituitary gland
ACTH
tropic hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
insulin
the stimulus for its release is an increasing blood glucose level
ADH
posterior pituitary hormone that is secreted in response to a low blood volume and concentrated blood, as occurs in dehydration
parathyroid hormone
stimulates osteoclastic activity
oxytocin
posterior pituitary hormone that is involved in the release of milk from the breast(the milk let down reflex)
ADH
also called vasopression
parathyroid hormone
a decrease in plasma calcuim is the stimulus for its release
goiter
this results from an iodine -deficient diet,which causes a hyperplasia or overgrowth of the thyroid gland
diabetes mellitus
results from a deficiency of insulin;the person becomes hyperglecemic and glucosuric
diabetes insipidus
results from a deficiency of ADH that causes the person to urinate up to 250L/day of pale urine
diabetes mellitus
condition that is treated with the replacement doses of insulin
addison's disease
condition that is caused by a deficiency of adrenocortical steroids
myxedema
the adult form of hypothyroidism that is treated with thyroid hormone
grave's disease
antithyroid drugs and surgery are used to treat this form of hyperthyroidism
cretinism
an infant born with a deficiency of thyroid hormones develops this condition,characterized by a severe delay in both physical and mental development
tetany
a deficiency of parathyroid hormone causes this life threatening hypocalcemic condition
acromegaly
condition that is caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone in an adult(after the fusion of the epiphyseal discs)
giantism
condition that is caused by a hypersecretion of somatotropic hormone in a child
dwarfism
condition that is caused by hyposecretion of somatotropic hormone in a child
pheochromocytoma
condition that results from a tumor of the adrenal medulla,which causes a very high(and dangerous) blood pressure
exophtalmos
describes the bulging or protruding eyes that characterize hypothyroidism
cushing's syndrome
a person who takes high doses of steroids over an extended period of time will develop this group of signs and symptoms
addison's disease
if untreated, this deficiency disease will progress to adrenal shock
diabetes mellitus
if untreated, this condition progresses to ketoacidosis
tetany
characterized by sustained muscle contraction and an inability to ventilate(breathe)
addison's disese
requires replacement doses of steroids, esp mineralocorticoid
myxedema cretinism
requires replacement doses of T3 and T4
What controls the adenohypophysis
the hypothalamus
what is the function of insulin
regulate blood glucose
ACTH
stimulates the adreanal cortex to secrete cortrisol
FSH/LH
tropic hormones that are aimed at the ovaries and testes
ketoacidosis of diabetes mellitus
caused by the rapid and incomplete breakdown of fatty acids
two hormones secreted by the pancreas
glucagon and insulin
what hormones are synthesized by the adenohypophysis
ACTH,TSH, and prolactin
what is the target gland of the ACTH
adrenal cortex
ADH
helps regulate blood volume
deficiency of aldosterone
causes a decrease in blood volume
aldosterone
stimulates the reabsorption of sodium and water by the kidney
PTH
stimulates the osteoclastic activity