Glenn US History Semester 2 Final
The History of the United States of America Post-Civil War
Terms in this set (102)
Post Civil War Railroad Building
- Union Pacific out of Omaha Nebraska
- Omaha to California
- Government gave land for free and loans with no interest; financial incentive
- Union Pacific and Central Pacific
- They built it to unify the United States of America
Within every speciesm by pure luck, there are differences that allow some types to live and others to die off. Claims that some people in society are better than others
Pullman Company owned a town in Illinois, the employees work for Pullman, rent houses from Pullman, and buys their groceries from Pullman. Pullman drastically cut the wages but never dropped the prices the charged throughout the town. The workers went on strike and nobody would work on a train car with the Pullman name on it. Trains in the U.S. Stopped running. President Clevelend called for Debs (the leader of the Union) to end the strike and he would not so he was arrested. Clevelend put mail carriers on every train so stopping them would be a federal offense. Debs went to jail without a trial and he was released
Pre-1890 (Old) Immigration vs. Post-1890 (New) Immigration
- Pre: English, Germans, and Irish: WASP
- Post: non-wasps: Italians, Greeks, Polish, Czech
The Social Gospel vs. the Gospel of Wealth
- Social gospel is to take care of people directly
- Gospel of wealth is to make your money and put it back into the economy based on your own volition
Post-Civil War Cattle Trails
- They need to get the cattle from Texas to Abilene, Kansas, Dodge City, and Denver for the trains
- Cattle pushed by cowboys and cattle herders
- Really dangerous
- Towns of sin and fallen angels
"Incidents" involving Native Americans of the Great Plains
Miners went wherever they could find minerals. Once the minerals were gone they would go somewhere else, leaving ghost towns. California Gold Rush was in 1849 and everybody moved to California overnight. Most never saw gold. Claim-Jumping was killing someone who found gold and taking their land and findings. Boom-towns were towns of miners who were looking for gold in the area that grew very quickly. Vigilante groups were formed; hang first and ask questions later.
Consequences of Scarcity of Trees on the Plains
The Populist Platform
‣ Wealth belongs to him who creates it, and every dollar taken from industry without an equivalent is robbery. "If any will not work, neither shall he eat." The interests of rural and civic labor are the same; their enemies are identical.
‣ The time has come when the railroad corporation will either own the people or the people must own the railroads, and should the government enter upon the work of owning and managing all railroads, we should favor an amendment to the Constitution by which all persons engaged in the government service shall be place under civil-service regulation of the most rigid character, so as to prevent the increase of the power of the national administration by the use of such additional government employment.
‣ We demand a national currency, safe, sound, and flexible, issued by the general government only, a full legal tender for all debts, public and private, and that without the use of banking corporations, a just, equitable, and efficient means of distribution direct to the people, at a tax not to exceed 2 per cent, per annum, to be provided as set forth in the sub-treasury plan of the Farmers' Alliance, or a better system; also by payments in discharge of its obligations for public improvements.
◦ Deflation helps people who have money.
◦ When they burned the paper money, they lowered the money supply.
• We demand free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the present legal ratio of 16 to 1.
• We demand that the amount of circulating medium be speedily increased to not less than $50 per capita.
• We demand a graduated income tax.
◦ The more you make, the higher your percentage.
• We believe that the money of the country should be kept as much as possible in the hands of the people, and hence we demand that all State and national revenues shall be limited to the necessary expenses of the government, economically and honestly administered.
• We demand that postal savings banks be established by the government for the safe deposit of the earnings of the people and to facilitate exchange.
‣ Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the government should own and operate the railroads in the interest of the people. the telegraph, telephone, like the post-office system, being a necessity for the transmission of news, should be owned and operated by the government in the interest of the people.
‣ The land, including all the natural sources of wealth, is the heritage of the people, and should not be monopolized for speculative purposes, and alien ownership of land should be prohibited. All land now held by railroads and other corporations in excess of their actual needs, and all lands now owned by aliens should be reclaimed by the government and held for actual settlers only.
‣ We demand a free ballot and a fair count in all elections and pledge ourselves to secure it to every legal voter without Federal Intervention, through the adoption by the States of the unperverted Australian or secret ballot system.
‣ That the revenue derived from a graduated income tax should be applied to the reduction of the burden of taxation now levied upon the domestic industries of this country.
‣ We pledge our support to fair and liberal pensions to ex-Union soldiers and sailors.
‣ We cordially sympathize with the efforts of organized workingmen to shorten the hours of labor, and demand a rigid enforcement of the existing eight-hour law on government work, and ask that a penalty clause be added to the said law.
‣ We regard the maintenance of a large standing army of mercenaries, known as the Pinkerton system, as a menace to our liberties, and we demand its abolition...
‣ We commend to the favorable consideration of the perplexed and the reform press the legislative system known as the initiative and referendum.
‣ We favor a constitutional provision limiting the office of President and Vice-President to one term, and providing for the election of Senators of the United States by a direct vote of the people.
Democratic Convention of 1896
William Jennings Bryan gives a speech and is nominated by acclimation because everyone was fired up by his speech. Men should not be crucified on golden coins
American Individualism: what does it symbolize? What seemed to challenge it?
Against the idea of unions, they believe that you stand on your own and make it or break it by yourself
An investigative journalist who wants to expose problems so you can find solutions. Ex. Uptown Sinclair, Jacob Riis, Lincoln Steffens, and Ida Tarbell
Federal Pure Food and Drugs Act
- With industrialization and urbanization, the government should protect you from getting poisoned by food. The government has the authority to keep you safe from companies that have poor, unregulated food products
Wilson's four part legislative plan
- Low Tariffs
- Anti-trust Act: breaks monopolies
- New Banking System: Federal Reserve System
- Graduated Income Tax
Causes of Spanish-American War
- Cuba must not deficit spend
- Cuba may not make any treaties with a foreign power that weakens its independence
- U.S. Has the right to intervene in Cuban affairs
- U.S. can retain its naval base in Cuba (Guantanamo Bay)
Election of 1900: the issues and candidates
Jennings Bryan: imperialism
Panama Canal: everything
◦ France built the Suez Canal and were about to build the Panama canal but all the men would die.
◦ Commission decides to build the canal in Panama.
‣ Hay Herran Treaty
• Declined by Columbia who owns Panama.
• Teddy then arranged the Panamanian revolution.
• An American battleship blocked the port so Columbia couldn't get troops in and the revolution succeeded.
‣ Hay Buena-Varilla Treaty
• New treaty with the government that the U.S. Tried to put into place.
• They give us the go ahead to build the canal.
◦ Panama has yellow fever but we killed the mosquitoes and stopped it.
‣ We built a locke canal.
Wilson's "moral imperialism" and Mexico
Making decisions for someone else based on your own moral agenda
American Public's sympathy for Allies in WWI: Why?
- America was pro-British and French because they had democracies.
- France is our oldest ally
- We speak English
Resumption of U-Boat warfare in 1917: why?
- 1916: U-Boats were stopped to prevent America from going to war
- They bring them back because they think they can win before the Americans can come
- The U.S. Factories turned into full time military construction
A.E.F. And General Pershing
American Expeditionary Force: Commanded American forces sent to Europe for WWI. He allowed the AEF to integrate into the Allied Operations
President Wilson's 14 Points
Only possible basis of an enduring peace.
The post WWI Red Scare
The rounding up and deportation of several hundred immigrants of radical political views by the federal government in 1919 and 1920. Caused by fears of subversion by communists in the United States after the Russian Revolution.
American Industries that suffered in the 1920's (Remember: boom is good, bust is Bad!)
The Scopes Trial
Scopes wanted to teach evolution in his school and it was illegal at the time.
Causes of the Great Depression
Election of 1932
Civilian Conservation Corps was a public work relief program that operated in the U.S. for unemployed men from relief families as part of the New Deal. Originally for young men ages 18-25.
New Deal's "critics from the left"
Townson, Coglin, Long
Original Social Security Act
Under Roosevelt, created a social insurance program designed to pay retired workers age 65 or older a continuing income after retirement.
Criticism of the Tennessee Valley Authority
Washington Naval Conference of 1921-22 (especially the Five Power Pact)
Hitler's actions in Europe: 1935-1939
Motive of Peal Harbor attack (beyond stupidity!)
Major Naval battles of WWII
Major Land battles of WWII
Germany's last western front offensive
Code name for the effort to develop atomic bombs for the United States during WWII. First controlled nuclear reaction took place in Chicago in 1942, and by 1945, bombs had been manufactured that used this chain reaction to produce great explosive force.
Series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, which were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany
Under Truman, principle that communist governments will eventually fall apart as long as they are prevented from expanding their influence.
Economic rebuilding of Europe. We gave Europe $15,000,000,000
U.S. Will help any country threatened by communist takeover
Witch hunt for the commie bastards
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education
JFK's space challenge to the nation
Get a man to the moon before the end of the decade
Cuban Missile Crisis
Russia had missiles in Cuba, U.S. Blockaded Cuba and Russia took their Nukes back, we saw we won't invade if they take out the missiles
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Voting Rights of 1965
Overcame legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment to the Constitution
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Join resolution that the United Sates congress passed in response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident
Tet Offensive: purpose and consequences
We've been told we are winning, we suddenly think we aren't winning any more. We don't believe the government anymore after seeing Marines fighting on the grounds of the embassy
Federal Highway Act of 1956
Eisenhower created a 41,000 mile system of Interstate and Defense Highways. Was supposed to eliminate unsafe roads, inefficient routes, traffic jams and all other things that got in the way of "speedy, safe transcontinental travel."
Medical Advances of the 1950's
- Vaccine for polio
Influences of Rock and Roll
White American parents think that its evil because it came from Jazz and Blues which was American. They thought it was provocative and teaching bad messages to their kids.
Influences of television in the 1950's
A population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in formation of the suburban sprawl. Opposite of urbanization. Solution to housing crisis
The Affluent Society
"A society in which scarcity of resources is not the predominant condition, and a general level of economic well-being has been achieved by most members of society." John Kenneth Galbraith: The Affluent Society
Kennedy's handicaps in Election of 1960
Kennedy's strength as president
Slogan used by JFK to describe his goals and policies. Kennedy maintained that, like the Americans of the frontier in in the nineteenth century, Americans of the twentieth century had to rise to new challenges, such as achieving equality of opportunity for all.
Johnson's Great Society programs
The Great Society
Major supreme court decisions 1954-1980
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Brown vs. Board
Roe vs. Wade
Miranda vs. Arizona
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader and Chairman/First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Chinese communist revolutionary and founder of the People's Republic of China.
Iran Hostage Crisis
52 American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days form November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981 after a group of Iranian students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
8th and final leader of the Soviet Union, General Secretary of the Communists Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, when the party was dissolved.
American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
Environmental Protection Agency: mission is protect human and environmental health. Established in 1970 under Richard Nixon
Branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings. Product of Rachel Carson
Election of 2000
George Bush beat Al Gore because he got more electoral votes even though he lost the popular vote. Gore called for a recount from the Florida Supreme Court, Bush got the United States supreme court to stop the recount.
May 1, 1960: An American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet airspace during the Cold War.
First huge suburb in the United States, after WWII, signified the Suburban Boom
The Changing Workplace
More worked in offices than factories
Upset Election of 1948
Problem with the wealth of America in the 1950's
Richest country still has so much poverty
Alliance for Progress
Under JFK, established economic cooperation between the U.S. And Latin America.
A volunteer program run by the United Sates government. The mission included providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United Sates to understand American culture, and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries.
Program administered by the United States Department of Labor that offers free-of-charge education and vocational training to you men and women ages 16 to 24
Project Head Start
A program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, healthy, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.
American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman. He was the first American in space.
U.S. Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and Senator of Ohio. First American to orbit Earth, circled it 3 times.
American astronaut and the first man to walk on the moon.
Soviet Pilot and Cosmonaut, first human to journey into outer space.
Warren Commission Report
A commission to investigate JFK assassination concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone as the sole assassin.
Major Figures of the American Civil Rights Movement
U.S. Army general who commanded forces during the Vietnam War
Massacre during the Vietnam War where A group of American soldiers killed between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in the South Vietnam village of My Lai.
Major Events of 1968
- MLK Assassinated
- Kennedy assassinated
- Riots in American Cities
- Tet Offensive
- French Riots
- Peace talks in Paris
The Watergate Scandal
Nixon's administration was caught bugging offices of political opponents and they tried to cover-up their involvement. Nixon was impeached and resigned.
American Labor leader and civil rights activist, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association
Camp David Accord
Peace treaty between Israel and Egypt overseen by Carter
Reaganomics (Reagan economic policies)
Afghanistan and Iraq
The Disaster of 2005
*How could war with Germany have been prevented prior to the invasion of Poland in 1939, other than by simply giving Hitler everything he wanted?
*Explain the Allied strategies for victory in Europe and the Pacific after December, 1941
*Give a brief (but not too brief) history of American involvement in the Vietnam War
*Explain the American Civil Rights Movement form the Truman desegregating the military (1947) to the Voting Rights Act of 1965