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25 terms

BIO 101 Ch. 7 quiz(lil bit of 8)

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a lipid one or more covlently attached carbohydrates
glycolipids
a protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates
glycoproteins
a transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely realted substances to cross the membrane
transport protein
passage of water molecules through the membrane in certain cells is greatly facilitated by channel proteins known as?
aquaporins
the movement of molecules of any substance so that they spread out evenly into the available space
diffusion
the region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases
concentration gradient
the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy
passive transport
the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
osmosis
the ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause the cell to gain or lose water
tonicity
solute concentration is the same as that inside the cell; no net movement across the plasma membrane
isotonic
solution surrounding a cell causes it to LOSE water
hypertonic
solution surrounding a cell takes up all the water
hypotonic
the control of solute concentrations and water balance
osmoregulation
swollen or distended in plant cells; firm-healthy state for plant cells
turgid
limp; lacking stiffness or firmness-loss of water
flaccid
when a plant cell shrivels, its plasma membrane pulls away from the wall-wilts/plant death
plasmolysis
when polar molecules and ions impeded by the lipid bilayer of the membrane diffuse passively with the help of transport proteins that span the membrane
facilitated diffusion
channel proteins that transport ions
ion channels
channels that open or close In response to a stimulus
gated channels
the movement of a substance across a cell membrane agasint its concentration or electrochemical gradient, mediated by specific transport proteins and requiring an expenditure of energy
active transport
a transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell-RELEASES ATP
sodium-potassium pump
a single ATP powered pump that transports a specific solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in a mechanism called?
contransport
when cells secrete certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane
exocytosis
a type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes
pinocytosis
when a cell engulfs a particle in a vacoule-large particles or substances are taken up by the cell
phagocytosis