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a lipid one or more covlently attached carbohydrates


a protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates


a transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely realted substances to cross the membrane

transport protein

passage of water molecules through the membrane in certain cells is greatly facilitated by channel proteins known as?


the movement of molecules of any substance so that they spread out evenly into the available space


the region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases

concentration gradient

the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy

passive transport

the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane


the ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause the cell to gain or lose water


solute concentration is the same as that inside the cell; no net movement across the plasma membrane


solution surrounding a cell causes it to LOSE water


solution surrounding a cell takes up all the water


the control of solute concentrations and water balance


swollen or distended in plant cells; firm-healthy state for plant cells


limp; lacking stiffness or firmness-loss of water


when a plant cell shrivels, its plasma membrane pulls away from the wall-wilts/plant death


when polar molecules and ions impeded by the lipid bilayer of the membrane diffuse passively with the help of transport proteins that span the membrane

facilitated diffusion

channel proteins that transport ions

ion channels

channels that open or close In response to a stimulus

gated channels

the movement of a substance across a cell membrane agasint its concentration or electrochemical gradient, mediated by specific transport proteins and requiring an expenditure of energy

active transport

a transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell-RELEASES ATP

sodium-potassium pump

a single ATP powered pump that transports a specific solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in a mechanism called?


when cells secrete certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane


a type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes


when a cell engulfs a particle in a vacoule-large particles or substances are taken up by the cell


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