33 terms

Chemistry Review

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How can you account for the high surface tension and low vapor pressure of water?
Hydrogen bonds hold H2O molecules to one another.(Escaping/Evaporation decreases)
How would you describe the structure of ice?
Regular open framework of H2O molecules arranged like a honey comb.
why is that ice floats in water even though they are the same material?
Liquid is denser than ice.
What is the difference between a solvent and a solute?
Solute becomes dispersed in the solvent.
What happens in the solution process?
Individual solute ions break away from the crystal, the negatively and positively charged ions become surrounded by solvent molecules and the ionic crystal dissolves.
Why are all ionic compounds electrolytes?
They dissociate ions
How do you write the formula for a hydrate?
Use a dot to connect the formula of the compound and the number of H2O molecules per formula unit.
What are the two types of hydrates and how are they similar and different from one another?
Efflorescent-loose all or some of water of crystallization when exposed to air.

Gyroscopic-absorb water from the atmosphere but don't dissolve it in.
Electrolytes vs Nonelectrolytes
Electrolytes-ionic, acids, bases, and salts

Non-electrolytes-Covalent with exception of acids, look for Carbon
What is doing the dissolving?
The Solvent
A substance that dissolves as who molecules when placed in a solvent
nonelectrolyte
A solution that has the maximum amount of solute dissolved
Saturated Solutions
The number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution
Molarity
The number of moles of solute dissolved per kilogram of solution
Molality
A solution that has water added to it to lower the concentration
Dilute Solution
An electrolyte contains...
A metal and A nonmetal
A non-electrolyte contains...
Two or more nonmetals
What is the difference between a suspension and a solution?
Particles of a suspension are much larger and aren't suspended indefinitely.
What distinguished a colloid from a suspensions and a solution?
A colloid has particles smaller than those in suspensions and larger than those in solutions.
What is the Tyndall Effect, and how can it be used to distinguish between a colloid and a solutiong?
It is the scattering of visible light by colloid particles.
What causes Brownian Motion, and can the presence of Brownian motion distinguish between a solution and a colloid?
Yes, brownian motion distringuish between a solution and colloid. Caused by molecules in a fluid free random motion and collide with anything in their path.
Could you separate a colloid by filtering it?
No. The particles are too small and will "slip" through the filter itself.
What factors determine the rate at which a substance dissolves?
Stirring(agitation), temp, and surface area of the dissolving particles.
How is solubility usually expressed?
In grams of solute per 100 g of solvent.
What conditions determine the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given solvent?
Temp and pressure
What is an example of liquids that is miscible and liquids that are immiscible?
Oil and water are immiscilbe
water and ethanol are miscible
What things will determine the amount of a substance that would be dissolved in a solution?
Temp and pressure?
What would you do to a saturated solution to make it an unsaturated solution.
heat the solution
What effect does dilution have on the total moles of solute in a solution?
reduces the number of moles of solute per unit volume, but the total number of moles of solute in solution doesn't change.
What are two ways to express the percent concentration of a solution?
Ratio of the volume of a solute to the volume of the solution

Mass of the solute to the mass of the solution
What are two ways of expression concentration of solution?
Unit molarity
Mole Fractions
How are Molarity and Molality different from one another?
Molality-refers to moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
Molarity-Moles of solute per liter of solution
How are freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation relate to molality?
Magnitudes of the freezing-point depression and the boiling-point elevation of a solution are directly proportional to the molal concentration, when the solute is molecular, NOT IONIC.